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Home Education Literature Audio Book Sports 1971
Home     >   Education     >   Essay (English)     > 
  1. Your school
  2. My pet animal
  3. Jute or the golden fiber of Bangladesh
  4. Your village or your native
  5. The cow
  6. Tea, or a popular drink of Bangladesh
  7. Rice
  8. A village market
  9. The radio
  10. Your neighbours
  11. Our national flag
  12. Domestic animals of Bangladesh
  13. National bird of Bangladesh or the Robin
  14. Television
  15. Paper
  16. A village fair
  17. National flowers of Bangladesh/the water lily
  18. The tiger/national animal of Bangladesh
  19. The Postman
  20. Your favourate poet
  21. The most interesting man i have ever met
  22. A village doctor
  23. A journey by train
  24. A journey by boat
  25. Your favourite game/ the game you like best/football
  26. Prize giving ceremony at your school
  27. Cricket
  28. Ha-du-du
  29. A football match that i witnessed
  30. A religious festival / Eid-Ul-Fitre
  31. The May Day
  32. Ekushe February /Shaheed Day
  33. The Liberation war of Bangladesh
  34. The Victory Day
  35. Your aim in life
  36. My daily life
  37. Student life
  38. Discipline
  39. Newspapers
  40. Physical exercise
  41. My hobby
  42. Punctuality
  43. Crops of Bangladesh
  44. Birds of Bangladesh
  45. Flowers of Bangladesh
  46. Fruits of Bangladesh
  47. The rivers of Bangladesh
  48. The rainy season of Bangladesh
  1. Winter in Bangladesh
  2. Spring in Bangladesh
  3. The natural beauties of Bangladesh
  4. Flood in Bangladesh
  5. The city of Dhaka
  6. Our school library
  7. Cyclone Bangladesh or, the cyclone of 1991
  8. My country
  9. My favourite teacher
  10. Food problem in Bangladesh
  11. Population problem of Bangladesh
  12. Visit to a place of historical interest
  13. Farmers of Bangladesh
  14. Our national fruit/jack-fruit
  15. My mother
  16. Trade fair
  17. Bangabandhu bridge or, Jamuna multipurpose bridge
  18. The life of a great man or, Hazrat Muhammad (sm.)
  19. A. K. Fazlul Haque
  20. Value of time
  21. Dignity of labour
  22. Patriotism
  23. My childhood
  24. Obedience to parents
  25. The value of science
  26. The cinema
  27. Dish antenna
  28. Female education
  29. Compulsory free primary education
  30. Honesty is the best policy
  31. Health is wealth/health
  32. Technical education
  33. Upazila administration
  34. Rural electrification in Bangladesh
  35. SAARC
  36. The peace treaty
  37. Illiteracy
  38. Grow more food
  39. Traffic jam
  40. Drug addiction: a curse
  41. Terrorism
  42. The international mother language day
  43. Science in everyday life
  44. Mass education
  45. Newspaper reading
  46. Your first day at school
  47. Family planning
  48. Planting trees / tree plantation
YOUR SCHOOL
 
Introduction: The name of our school is [name of your school] school. It is in [name of the district] district. It is one of the best schools in the district. It is situated beside the [name of the road] road.
 
Description: Our school is a very big high school. It is a two-storied modern building. There are total twenty five rooms; there is the headmaster’s room, the teacher’s room, the library room and the prayer room. There are sections in all the classes.
 
Teaching staff: There are twenty teachers in our school. They are sympathetic to us. They teach us with care. Most if the teachers are highly educated and trained. Our headmaster is an M. A. M. Ed. He is a man of principle.
 
Students: There are about Six hundred students in our school; most of the students are Muslims. The rest of them are Hindus.
 
Results: The results of our school are always very good, every year a good number of students pass the S.S.C examination. Some students get junior scholarship every year.
Games facilities: the school has a big play-ground. We play football, volleyball, basketball, cricket, badminton and other games. In inter school’s games and sports our school earns reputation every year.
 
Library facilities: There is a big library in our school. The library has more than five thousand books. The librarian guides us in the choice if books.
 
Other facilities: The school has other facilities like red-cross team, cadet, scouts and clubs. It has an excellent tiffin system.
 
Annual functions: The school observes some annual functions such as the annual sports, the prize giving ceremony the annual milad, the Shahid day, the Independence Day and other national functions.
 
Conclusion: Our school is well-reputed. We are proud and happy that we read in such a good school.
MY PET ANIMAL
 
Introduction: There are many kinds of pet animals in the world. The dog and the cat are mostly known in our country. At every house of our country, these two animals are seen. Among the all kinds of pet animals, I like the cat most. I have a pet cat. She is pretty to look at. I called it pussy.
 
Description: Pussy has four feet, two ears, two eyes and a long tail. It has a round head. Its whole body is covered with soft fur. It looks like a small tiger.
 
My treatment with it: I like pussy and pussy is also fond of me. If I am late in returning home from school, she mews about and searches for me. As soon as I return home she comes to me running. I often take her on my lap. She then purrs and shows her joy. When I call it by its name, it moves round me and mews very sweetly. When I start for school, pussy follows me up to the gate to bid me fare well with a heavy heart.
 
Nature: By nature pussy is neat and clean; she does not go outside the house and soil her body. She likes comport and sleeps in my bed. If I get angry, she looks at me tenderly and mews lovingly. So I cannot drive her away.
 
Habit: My pet cat pussy is very gentle. She does not steal any food from our house. She is very fond of milk and dried fish. When we sit to eat, she mews around us. I give her food to eat. Every one of our house loves her and gives her food to eat. She likes to play with my younger brothers and sisters.
 
Usefulness: Pussy does many good to us. At night she moves about in our house and kills rats, mice and many harmful insects.
 
Conclusion: Pussy is my favourite pet. She is like a member of our family. We all take special care of her because we tame her for our good and pleasure. We look upon pussy as a friend of the family. So everyone of our family treat her with great care.
JUTE or
THE GOLDEN FIBER OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Jute is a kind of fibre. It is obtained from the bark of jute plants. It grows up straight to the height varying from right to ten cubits. The barks and leaves of jute are light and green in colour. The plant has no branches and thin leaves grow on its stem. The stemmas covered with a thick bark. The best quality of jute is like silk
 
Where grown: Bangladesh is the store house of jute. It grows almost in all the districts of Bangladesh. It grows very well in Mymensingh. One third if the jute production only grows in Mymensingh. It also grows in Rajshahi, Bogra, Rangpur, Pabna, Comilla, Dhaka, Faridpur, Tangail, and other places of Bangladesh. Bangladesh holds the monopoly in the world jute trade.
 
Its cultivation: Jute grows in low land. Jute also grows in India, Burma, Japan, etc. the jute cultivation requires hard labour, long time and much patience and care. At first the land is ploughed very well. It is levelled again and again and then it becomes powdery. Then it is manured in the months of Falgun and Chaitra. The jute plants grow within a week. Then the weeds are removed and the soil is made loose with hoes. Sometimes, jute plants are pulled out for thickness. After four to five months plants grow into their full size. Then they are cut down and tied up into bundles. These are then kept under water for some days and they are rotten. Then the barks are separated, washed and dried in the sun. The fibre is then ready for sale in the market.
 
Usefulness: Jute is very useful thing. It makes the best and cheapest packing materials which is called gunny bag. Besides this mats, ropes coarse cloths, shawls, tarpaulins are made of it. Its stalks are used as fuel and in making fencing. The green leaves are eaten as vegetables. Narayangonj is the chief of jute Business in Bangladesh. It is called the Dundy of Bangladesh.
 
Conclusion: Jute is the main cash crop of our country. Our economy depends solely on it. Government should install more jute mills in our country.
YOUR VILLAGE or
YOUR NATIVE
 
Introduction: The name of our village is [name of your village]. It is in the district of [name of the district]. It is an ancient village.
 
Situation: The village stands on the north bank of the river Shitalakkha. On the east of the village there is a large field. It is 5 miles away from the district headquarter. The Thana headquarter [name of the thana headquarter] is only 3 miles away from our village.
 
Population and Occupation: The population of our village is over fifteen thousand. Most of them are Muslims. The rest are Hindus. Most of the villagers are farmers. Some are businessmen and some are service-holders, few of the villagers are fishermen and carpenters, there are many educated men in our village. Most of them live in towns.
 
Institutions: It is an old and important collage. There is a high school, three primary schools, a college and a public library in our village. There are also a post office and big market here. There are four pucca mosques and a madrasha in the village.
 
Communication: The communication of our village either by road or by river is very good. The village is well communicated with the district headquarter and the thana headquarter. The river Shitalakkha connects the village with Sakhua and Kamalapur.
 
Cultural activities: Our village is famous for some cultural activities like Jattra, jarigan, the boat race and the bullock race,
 
Climate and health: The climate of our village is good for health. We have no want of pure drinking water. Fish, milk, meat vegetables etc. are available here in plenty. So the villagers are healthy happy and active.
 
Conclusion: The people of our village are very simple and honest. They live in peace and happiness I am proud that I live in such an ideal village.
THE COW
 
Introduction: There are many kinds of domestic animals in the world. But the cow is the most useful to us. It is a gentle domestic animal.
 
Description/ Appearance: The body of the cow is covered with short fur. The cow has a long hoof. These are cloven. It has a long tail. There is a tuft of hair at its end. It can drive away flies easily with her tail. She has no teeth in her upper jaw.
 
Tribes: Various tribes of cows are found in the world. Short horn, Frisiana and Horiana are famous. The Lall an Frisiana are famous for milk. The short horn is famous for its tasteful flesh.
 
Where found: The cow is found all over the world. Wild cows are also found in the African forest.
 
Colours: Cows are of many colours. Some are white, some are black, some are red and some are of mixed colours.
 
Food: The cow eats of many grass, straw, bran and leaves of trees. It also eats oil cake and vegetables.
 
Nature: The cow is gentle by nature. It bears one calf at a time. It loves its calf very much. She does not eat at a time. She chews cut when it takes rest.
 
Usefulness: The cow gives us nourishing milk and beef. We also get many.  Sweet from milk, cow dung is good manure. Many necessary things are made of its skin, bone and horns. The cow dung is used as fuel. Shoes bags and suitcases are made if her hide. Combs and buttons are made of her horns and bones.
 
Conclusion: the cow is very useful animal. It is the main assets of our farmers. So, we should take care or her and treat her gently.
TEA, or 
A POPULAR DRINK OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: tea is a sort of black and dried leaves. It is collected from small bushy trees. Tea plants bear enough green leaves. They grow from five to six feet high.
 
Where grown: Tea does not grow in damp land. Hilly places are suitable for growing tea. Darjeeling and Assam in India are famous for tea growing. In Bangladesh the districts of Sylhet and Chittagong produce tea in plenty. Ceylon is one of the best tea-growing countries of the world. Formerly tea was not available in our country. It was first imported here from England.
 
How grown: The British and some foreign tea plates grow tea in our country. They engage labourers to work in the tea-gardens. They carefully cultivate and manure the hilly lands. Then they sow seeds. Kittle plants grow up. When the bushy plants are fully grown, the labourers pluck their green and soft leaves. The tea-leaves are gathered three or four times every year. These leaves are then dried up. Packed and exported to foreign countries.
 
Usefulness: we know that a delicious drink is prepared with tea. First we boil water. Tea is then poured into the water. Within a few minutes, we separate the leaves from the water. This water is called liquor. We mix milk and sugar with the liquor and drink it. This drink is delicious and has a nice flavour.
 
Conclusion: Tea is a stimulant drink. When people feel exhausted, they drink tea. Tea makes their body and mind cheerful. It is very useful in cold countries. People also take tea when they feel cold.
RICE
 
Introduction: Rice is the staple food of the Bangladesh. Most of the people of the world live on rice.
 
Description: Rice is obtained from paddy. It is a kind of corn. It grows in abundance in hot and moist climate. It is largely found in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Burma, China and Japan.
 
Kinds: Rice is of different kinds. They are the Aush, Aman and Boro. The Anon is the best of all paddies grown here. Irri is now available in Bangladesh.
 
How to cultivate: The rice field is first ploughed and then harrowed. Seeds of paddy are then grown in it. The field is weeded several times. This is the process of cultivation of Aush paddy only. The cultivation of Aman paddy requires a process of transplantation. When the rains set in, the cultivator ploughs and harrows his seed plot. He sows paddy there. He keeps the plot moist. After a few days, he gathers the tender seedlings with their roots. He plants them with his hands in his field at a distance. Paddy ripens after four or five months and looks golden and fine.
 
How obtained: Paddy is reaped when it is ripen. It is tied up in sheaves and brought to born. The sheaves are then beaten against a long frame made of split of bamboo. The grains are thus separated from the stalks. Paddy is them boiled and sunned and husked. We get rice from it.
 
Uses: rice is our staple food in Bangladesh. Many other kinds of food are made from it. Straw is used as food of the cattle and for other purposes.
 
Conclusion: About 50% of the people of the world live on rice, so we should take proper steps to grow more rice.
A VILLAGE MARKET
 
Introduction: A village market is a place where the villagers met to buy and sell things. It is a buying and selling centre for the villagers. Generally it sits every morning and evening. Besides, big markets sit once or twice a week.
 
Place/where held: A village market is generally held at the junction to roads or by the side of a river or a canal. Large banyan trees are let grown to give shade and shelter.
 
Kinds of village market: There are two kinds of village market. They are daily market and weekly market. Daily market is called bazar. It sits daily in the evening and morning. Weekly market is called hat. It sits once or twice a week in the evening.
 
Description/Arrangement of shops: A village market has three parts like open space. Temporary and permanent shed. In the open space the sellers sit in rows. Fish, milk, fruits, betel leaves vegetables, etc. is sold there. In the temporary sheds oil, rice, salt, pepper etc. are sold. Some grocers, tailors, doctors, potters sit in the permanent shed.
 
Usefulness/Utility/Advantage: The village market is very useful to the villagers. Here they get all things of daily use. It saves the villagers from going to distant places to buy things. It is the meeting place of the villagers. The villagers find a social and friendly life here.
 
Conclusion: The village market does great service to the rural people. It is the backbone of the rural economy.
THE RADIO
 
Introduction: The radio is the wonderful gift of science. An Italian scientist named Marconi invented the wireless instrument. Many other scientists’ improved the system before it could be used as the modern radio.
 
What it is: There is something in the air called ether which carries sound to our ears. But the waves of this ether become fainter and fainter as they travel farther. So it cannot carry the sound to a distant place. Radio is the instrument by which we can hear the sound from any part of the world.
 
How it works: There are powerful radio stations in all bag cities in the world. In Bangladesh Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Khulna, Sylhet and Rangpur have radio transmitting sets. As soon as a sound is made the microphone catches it, and the transmitter broadcasts it in the air. The waves of ether carry it to distant places where, people, having the radio sets, can catch the sound.
 
A medium of entertainment and instruction: The radio is a very useful instrument. It brings us the best entertainments of the world. It entertains us with songs, talks, plays, etc. the radio instructs us as well. It is a valuable medium of instruction. Over the radio we can listen to speeches of political leaders, great scientists and eminent professors. Even the ignorant masses can be educated by the radio. Businessmen get current prices, sportsmen get mews about sports and farmers get weather reports on the radio, special programmes are also arranged for school children.
 
Its popularity: Now a day the radio has become very popular. Even rural areas are not without radio sets. In towns even the small shopkeepers have radio sets.
 
Conclusion: The radio may be said to give brought the entire world within out room.
YOUR NEIGHBOURS
 
Introduction: The word neighbour means a person living in a house or a street near another. So those who live near one another are neighbours, though they are not living in the neighbourhood. 
 
Importance of neighbours: Man is a social being. He does not live in a forest like an animal unless he is a savage or a saint. Of course there was a time when men live in the forests like animals. Then none could think for others. Self-preservation was his only thought at that time. Gradually men realized the advantage of living together. It was necessary for their existence. Otherwise they were unable to protect themselves from the attacks of wild animals. So they formed society and learnt to live together as neighbours.
 
Our neighbours are our companions in prosperity and adversity. We get more help from them than our close relations. So we gave our duties and responsibilities to our neighbours because they are our constant companions.
 
Duty towards neighbours: It is our duty to treat our neighbours well. We should share in their joys and sorrows. We should stand by them and give them courage and protection in danger. We should attend upon them when they ate sick. We should help our poor neighbours with money and lessen their distress. We should feed them when they are in need of. If any of our neighbours happens to be wicked, we should do our best tom rectify him. We should not hate our neighbours in any way.
 
Conclusion: Thus we find that a good neighbour is a great boon to a man. So all of us should try to be good neighbours and help one another in all possible ways.
OUR NATIONAL FLAG
 
Introduction: A national flag is the symbol of independence to any nation. All the independent country possesses a separate national flag. We are an independent nation too. The name of our country is Bangladesh and we are Bangladesh By nation. We achieved our independence after a bloody war in 1971. Since then we have owned a national flag which is very sacred to us.
 
Description of the flag: Our national flag is very beautiful to look at. It is rectangular in size. It may be different sizes small or big. But it must be 5:3 in pro-portion. There is a round red portion in the middle. The remaining portion is deep green in colour. When the flag is hoisted high, it looks very nice and it appears that a red sun on a small field full of green crops.
 
Significance of the flag: Our national flag is not a flag only. The dignity and significance of our national flag has to be preserved at the code of our lives. When we look at our national flag our eyes are filled with immense hoy and contentment.
 
Meaning conveyed by the flag: our national flag conveys a deep meaning. The green portion denotes freshness and liveliness. The rising sun indicates our promising life and prosperity in future. Ours is a new state, we are equal to any nation and country of the world.
 
Our duties: We have a newly born state. It is our pride that we have possessed a new born state and a new national flag. The new national flag that we have possessed has established us in the world as a national that is equal in state with all. So we should consider it a precious wealth. We ought to preserve its prestige. We should respect to our national flag.
 
Conclusion: National flag is dearer, holier and more valuable than all other earthly possessions to every independent nation. It is our sacred duty to respect our national flag. We should remain ever ready to die for its defence if necessary.
DOMESTIC ANIMALS OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Animals that people tame in their house are called domestic animals. Of them the cow, the buffalo, the goat, the sheep, the horse, the dog and the cat are important. All of them are more or less useful.
 
Classes: Some of the domestic animals are of great use to us. They are the cow, the buffalo, the goat and the sheep. They are wealth to the owner. People take fancy for the horse, the dog and the cat. So they tame them, now we shall discuss some of them.
 
Cow: Of all the domestic animals the cow is the mode useful to us. It gives us milk. Many things of food are made of milk. Its dung is good manure. Bags, shoes and other useful things are made of its hide. We get buttons and combs from its bones and horns. The bull draws cart and ploughs the fields.
 
Buffalo: The buffalo is a four footed domestic animal. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh. It is gentle by nature but looks ugly. It lives on grass and draws the carts and ploughs.
 
Horse: The horse is a four-footed domestic animal. Its body is covered with soft glossy hair. There are many kinds of horses. They are of different colours and sizes. The horse can run fast. It is intelligent and faithful to his master. It lives on grass, hay, straw and gram. It draws the ploughs and carries heavy loads. Its hide, hoofs mane is useful to us.
 
Goat: The goat is mild gentle. It is found all over the Bangladesh. It gives us flesh and milk. It gives us two or three calf at a time. The goat is very useful to us.
 
Dog: The dog is a good servant of man. It watches over its master’s house at night. The dog lives on flesh, rice and bread. Mad dogs are very dangerous; a good dog is a good companion.
 
Cat: The cat is gentle by nature. It kills tats and saves us from their harms.
 
Sheep: The sheep is like goats. It is also very useful to us. It gives us calm hide. Many useful things are made of its hide.
 
Conclusion: Thus domestic animals are more or less useful to us. We should be kind to them.
NATIONAL BIRD OF BANGLADESH or
THE ROBIN
 
Introduction: Various types of birds fly trees to trees in our country. Our minds fill up with the pleasure of chirping of the birds. The Doel is our national bird among uncountable numbers of birds.
 
Appearance: The Doel is a small bird in size. It goes always raising its tail. There are long spots of white colour in its tail. In the neck there is a wreath. To the bird is much liked. Some of the Doels have long spots of white and black under its chest. The body of it is covered with soft feather. The male Doel is glitter in colour. There are nails in the top of the legs. The colours of its legs are brown.
 
Food and living place: They live on various kinds of worms and insects. They eat pulse, mustard, lentil sesamum etc. the Doels live in the holes of trees. They also live in bushes of trees. In the winter morning they hop and chirp again and again in guava tree, in lemon tree and in the pools of bean and take worms and insects. Generally in summer it lays eggs of blue colour making nests in the holes of trees.
 
Dignity of national bird: There are few birds like sweet voice of Doel. The Doel can imitate voice of other birds. The Doel is very neat and clean. Without this the Doel is found all over our Bangladesh. For these reasons the robin or the Doel is got the dignity of our national bird.
 
Usefulness: The Doel does not any harm to us. But it benefits to us eating various worms and insects. The sweet chirping of the Doel harmed us. This is a member of national beauties. The flesh of Doel is taste. Sometime the cruel prayers catch the Doel and get money to sell.
 
Conclusion: Though the Doel is a small bird, it has a great value. So, we should be kind to it. The government should prohibit catching the Doel by law.
TELEVISION
 
Introduction: The television is a wonderful gift of science. Indeed it is one of the seven wonders of modern science. An English scientist named Bayard invented the television in 1926. But the system had to be gradually improved by many other scientists before it could be successfully utilised by Bayard to make the modern television.
 
How the system works: Television combines televised scenes with a take to reproducing sounds. This is done by installing a radio telephones at the two ends are thus able to hear and see each other. At the receiving station both the vision and the sound signals are made to pass through a radio frequency amplifier and frequency changer with the result that the signals devise themselves. In fact, the television is a system which employs mechanical photo, electrical and photo, electrical and wireless processes for reproducing scene, object, etc. at a distance. In many ways the method has the likeness to that of the cinema. The difference is that in the cinema pictures on a long film are reproduced while in the television an actual moving figures: i. e. the face of a speaker or of an actor is reproduced.
 
Its importance: Television is a great improvement over the radio. Only by hearing a man’s speaking we may not understand him fully, but we both see and hear him his speech is likely to produce greater effect on our minds. It is thus clear that the television has a very great importance. Its growing popularity shows that it can be an effective instrument of entertainment and valuable medium of instruction. In western countries, it has already been playing this role with greater and greater success. In Bangladesh a Television station has been set up at Dhaka. It is hoped that this powerful organ of entertainment and instruction will have a network throughout the country before long.
 
Conclusion: Television is a popular invention of modern science. It is, however, very costly.
PAPER
 
Introduction: paper is the gift of human skill. Paper is a light thing on which we write. It is the driving force of the modern civilization. Without paper we cannot do even for a day. The word paper came from the word papyrus which was a leaf of a plant.
 
History: Perhaps, it was first made in china. Some claim that paper was first introduced in Egypt.
 
How made: It is made of rags, bamboos, straw, wood and other things. This are cleaned and cut into small pieces and kept under water to make tem soft. Then they are boiled with soda to remove dirt. It is called pulp. They pulp is spread over machine. Here it is dried and we get the paper.
 
Kinds: There are many kinds of papers. They differ in size, colour and quality. Some are red, some are white, some are coarse and some are fine. Coarse paper is cheap and fine paper is costly.
 
Mills: There are there paper mills in Bangladesh. One at Chandraghona, one at Paksey and the other in Khulna. Besides, there are lots of paper mills in the world at present. Paper is made in these mills.
 
Usefulness: paper is very useful to us. We cannot do without paper. Paper is used in writing, printing and decorating. It is largely used in offices, courts, schools and colleges. Books and news are printed in paper. Spread of education is not possible without paper. No record, no document could be made without paper.
 
Conclusion: paper is the most useful thing. It helps the spread of education and knowledge.
A VILLAGE FAIR
 
Introduction: A village fair generally held once in a year in a village. It brings joy to the rural people. Fancy goods for show and sale are imported here. Events of many amusements are arranged for attractions.
 
Occasion and gathering: A village fair is held either at the end of Poush or at the end of Chaitra. It usually sits in an open field or a river bank or under a large banyan tree. It lasts for two to three days or even for a week. It is a great attraction for the children. People of all walks of life gather there to participate in the exhibition of goods of different kinds and tastes. These are brought here for Sale and show.
 
Attraction: There are many forms of amusement in a village fair, jatra and circus. Nagardola and puppet shoes are held there. Cinema parties show pictures to the people on a small camera. Circus and magic are the special attraction of the fair. Children blow whistles, fly balloons and buy fancy goods. They make sports in their joy and excitement. Gamblers assemble there to have a good chance.
 
Arrangement of shops: In a fair, temporary shops are arranged in rows on an open place, clothes, dolls, toys, utensils, ribbons, whistles, cheap sweets and many other fancy good are brought for sale by the small traders from far and near, local potters, carpenters, weavers, blacksmiths and artists present their hand made goods manifold colours for a good sale. Tea and sweets gave the greater sale.
 
Conclusion: A village fair brings charm to the village life. It encourages the rural arts crafts. To the children it is a great attraction.
NATIONAL FLOWERS OF BANGLADESH or
THE WATER LILY
 
Introduction: Shapla is our national flower. This is familiar and dear to all. Without cultivation it is grown in water. In the stagnant water the shapla grows more.
 
Classes: shapla has a few tribes. Some are red and their stems are fresh and fat. These are grown in the ponds and tanks. There is another kind of shapla. Their stems are then. Their petals ate brown in colour. They are grown in the marsh, canals and in lakes. The Amazon Lily is the most beauteous. Without this, there is a blue lotus seen everywhere in our country. Their petals are white but outer side of the petals are yellow. This is our national shapla. Shapla has no scent but it has uncommon beauty.
 
When it grows: Generally shapla grows in the rainy season. In the dry season shapla dies and the root becomes dry in the ground. In the advent of rains, the shapla tree comes out from the root. The plant of shapla increases to the increase of water. To the top of the stem there grows a budding and the petals are included after rising up the buddings bloom in the breeze.
 
The beauty of shapla: the beauty of shapla is second to none. Shapla laughs on the water in moonlit night and charmed us extremely. On the marshy water Shapla’s beauty enchants all.
 
Usefulness: our boys and girls gather to pick up shapla. They pick up shapla and eat them with joy. The poor children collect shapla and they sell in the market. Without this, we can use the stem of shapla as curry.
 
Dignity as national flower: shapla is the symbol of simple natural mind of us. In every watery lands of Bangladesh it grows enough. There is no one that he has not seen shapla. There is no need to cultivate it. It grows automatically, so, shapla is our national flower.
 
Conclusion: shapla is very familiar and dear to all. We love this flower cordially.
THE TIGER or
NATIONAL ANIMAL OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: the tiger has a majestic appearance and manners. It looks like a cat. So it is called the niece of the cat.
 
Classes: there are various kinds of tigers. The Chita, Leopard, the Wolf and the Royal Bengal Tiger belong to the family of tigers. Of them the Royal Bengal Tiger of the Sundarbans is the largest. The Royal Bengal Tiger is our national animal.
 
Appearance: the tiger has a round face. His body is of brown colour with black spots. There are spotted tiger also, his eyes are bright and he has sharp claws in the paws of his four feet. He has very sharp teeth. He is from six to eight feet long and four feet high. His body is longer than that of the lions. But he is not very high. He has whiskers below the nose. His head is round.
 
Where found: Tigers are found in the tropical forests of Asia, Africa and America. The Sundarbans of Bangladesh are suitable for the tigers to live in.
 
Nature: the tiger is very ferocious. They are blood thirsty. They are very cruel too. At day time they sleep in the bushy thickets of the forest. And at night they get out in search of prey. They lie in waiting for prey near the pools of rivers. When small animals came to drink, they fall on them. Tigers are stronger than any other of the animals. Tigresses give birth to three or four cubs at a time and they are fond of the cab.
 
Food: blood is the dearest food of the tiger. They also like flesh very much. They kill cows, goats and deer.
 
Usefulness: The tiger is not of great use to us. Its skin is used by the devotees. They sit on it. We see the tiger showing tricks in the circus. The tiger adds to the beauty of the forest. 
 
Conclusion: Tiger is our national animal. Tiger is the strongest wild animal. So, the shadow of the tiger head is beautified on the taka and on the body of the shoulder of the army of Bangladesh.
THE POSTMAN
 
Introduction: The postman is a petty government servant. He works in post office. He well knew to all both in towns in village. He is a great friend of the people.
 
Hiss Dress: He puts on khaki dress. He has a turban on hid head. He carries a bag across his shoulders. Letter and other valuable things are kept in it. Sometime he rides on his bicycle.
 
His duty/His function: The postman has to do many works. His daily work begins in the morning. At first he attends the office. He delivers the letter, Money-Orders, Parcels, etc to the owners. In the village he sells post card and envelops. He has to walk a long distance to finish his duties in time.
 
His life/Responsibility: The life of a postman in not easy. His duty is full of responsibility. He has to be regular in hi duties. He has to lead a busy, punctual and dutiful life. His failure in duties many cause great loss or harm to people.
 
Qualities of a postman: A good postman has many qualities. He is dutiful and sincere. He is regular, honest and conscious of his duties. He is an embodiment of quiet service.
 
Usefulness: The postman is a very useful servant of us. We cannot do without is service. He brings us news from home and abroad. We eagerly wait for his arrival.
Conclusion: The postman gets a small pay. But his duty is very responsible. So he should be well-paid so that he may perform his duty with full attention.
YOUR FAVOURATE POET
 
Introduction: In the west Bengal there a distinct Call Burdwan. Kazi Nazrul Islam was born at Churulia, a village in Burdwan. He was born on Jaitha, 1306 B.S. His father's name was Kazi Fakir Ahamed and that of his mother was Zahea Khatun. In his childhood he was called "Dukhu Miah. He is my favorite’s poet.  
 
Early life: Nazrul Islam was a student of the Muktab of his village. He was a brilliant student. But he was a naughty boy. He passed out of his Muktab when he was eleven years old. Then he served the Muktab as a teacher. At this time his father died and he joined itinerant theatrical party. He wrote dramatic pieces and songs for tee party. When he was reading in class ten, he joined the army and become a Havildar. From the army headquarters he sent poems and short stories to the papers of Calcutta.
 
First World War: After the first Great War he came back and began to live in Calcutta. He wrote a poem called 'Bidrohi' this poem made him famous ever night. For this poem he had to go to his jail. He wrote many poems against the British rulers. For writing poems was oppressed many times by them.
 
As a poet: He was a versatile writer. For about twenty years he wrote poems, novels, short stories, dramas and song. He was the greatest composer of Bengal. Some of his famous books are 'Agni Bina' 'Bisher Bashi' 'Chakrabak' Sindu Hindol' Byather Dan' Aleya etc. His entire poem are full of rebellious spirit. He stood against all sorts of oppression. He was a renowned journalist too.
 
Conclusion: Nazrul Islam is no more with us. He is greatly honored as our national poet. Nazrul died in Dhaka on August 29, 1976.He will be remembered by the nation forever.
    THE MOST INTERESTING MAN I HAVE EVER MET
 
Introduction: In our social life we meet many people everyday. The people we meet are not equal in nature and manner. Everybody has his personality. This may be pleasing or my not be pleasing. We accept everything normally if there is not anything most abnormal. Sometimes we meet someone who has some special qualities which make us much interested in him. In the last winter vacation I met such a man at Dinajpur. His qualities have made me much interested in him.
 
Who he is: The most interesting man I meet in Dinajpur in Mr. Ahmed. He is a retired school teacher. He is an old widower. He is a member of the family of my friend Haque. He is the elder brother of Haque's father. There he is known as Uncle Ahmed. As a school teacher he came in contact with different classes of people and gathered wide experiences. Now he is about sixty-two years old. But he does not look so old. Infect, he always looks smart. He wears tight dress. Everybody respect and obeys him as he is the oldest man in the family. I meet this Uncle Ahmed when I went to my friend's house at Dinajpur to spend the last winter vacation.
 
Qualities: Uncle Ahmed is satisfied with a little o anything like food and cloth. But the members of the family cannot satisfy him because he is a very fastidious man. Whenever he meets a member of his family, he asks him/her why be/she has done this and why he/she has not done that. All the members of the family are afraid of his why questions. So, all the members of the family are try their best to avoid him. Uncle Ahmed cannot remain silent without asking questions. Whenever a school going boy of the family faces him, he asks him academic questions in various ways. Everybody becomes fed up with his questions. If anyone fails to answer any of his questions, he calls him worthless' or hopeless.' I was also afraid of him because he does not spare even a guest if he is a school student. Whenever he meets a visitor, he begins recounting his wide experiences. He does not try to understand that the visitor may be a very busy man. He often visits busy people to recount his experiences. He totally forgets that he told and retold them the same story several times. As a result nobody likes to listen to him. Uncle Ahmed is a lonely man.
 
Conclusion: I feel very sorry for Uncle Ahmed. In fact, he is a lonely man. His wide experiences have made him very lonely. He can overcome his loneliness if he tries to write a book reflecting his wide experiences. Time will come when his experiences will be highly valued to the society.
A VILLAGE DOCTOR
 
Introduction: A village doctor is an important person in the village. He is well-known to every man and woman in the village and is held in high respect. He gives medicine to the poor villagers. Normally a village doctor is not a qualified one. There are still some village doctors who work under a medical and acquire knowledge of medicine.
 
The daily life of a doctor: There is a dispensary at the home of a village doctor. There is a stock of medicine in one or two of his Almirahs. He has a chair and a table for his use and a bench for the patient to sit on. The patients come to his house early in the morning. He does not take the help of a compounder. He prescribes the medicine for the waiting patients and gives them medicine. After the departure of his attending patients, he goes out to visit the house where he is called. He may have a bi-cycle to go to the distant places. His fees are small and if the patient is poor, he prescribes to them without fees. 
 
Responsibility of a village doctor: A village doctor takes special care of his patient. Sometimes, he keeps sitting for hours together by the side of his patients and makes careful study of the disease. In case of any serious disease he, sometimes, sits all the night by his patient and applies medicine. He is the best friend of the villagers.
 
Conclusion: The village doctor is simple in his habit. He is loved and respected by all. Not only the poor but also the well-to-do people treat him with politeness. Out popular Government had taken step for the development of the village doctor in the way of proper training.
A JOURNEY BY TRAIN
 
Introduction: During the last summer holidays I had a pleasure trip. I took a pleasant journey by train.
 
When and where from the journey began: It was summer vacation. My elder brother and I were to start for Fenchugonj form the Dhaka station at 8-30 a.m. accordingly. We went to the station fifteen minutes earlier. In the mean time the bell rang. With the whistle of the guard the train steamed off.
 
Journey scene of the way: It was a full moonlit night. I was peeping through the window of the train. The snow white beauty of the clam nature outside charmed my eyes. The train moved on between green fields. It was a mail train and did not stop at all the stations. Tongi, Bhairab, Akhaura, etc. were the stations where it stopped during the journey. Looking outside in the morning, I could realize a clear change. We were passing through hilly areas. As we were moving forward the hill o either side of the road seemed to be moving backward. The entire sight was soothing my eyes. My brother told me that we had passed kulaura Junction and within as hour we would reach Fenchuganj. We crossed to forget myself.
 
The end of the journey: I was made conscious by the jerk of the train and the cry of the coolies. The train had reached Fenchuganj and our journey ended.
 
Conclusion: Our journey to Fenchuganj was a new experience to me. I shall never forget this beautiful town surrounded by small rocks.
A JOURNEY BY BOAT
 
Introduction: Bangladesh is a land of rivers a journey by boat is very interesting and enjoyable in our country. During the last autumn holidays we had a pleasure journey.
Occasion: I had an opportunity to enjoy a journey by boat. A few months ago one of my friends invited me to attend the marriage ceremony of his only sister. I started for Joypura, the village of my friend by boat.
 
Description: It was on Thursday, the 15th October, 2000. I and two of my friend hired a fine boat. We got up early in the morning. We went to the side of the river There was a boat ready to carry us across the river. There were two boatmen. We got on the boat at about 7-30 a.m. The sky was clear. The boat pushed down from the river bank. It began to sail down the river. We saw boat of many kinds. Some had sails. They were being carried along by the wind. Some were caring jut. Some were taking a lot of bananas. Fishermen were casting there nets here and there. The stakes were seen about their nets. Their small boats tossed up and sown. Water hyacinths were floating down the current. Far off on the bank there were very big Godowns and beautiful bungalows. Children were running to and fro. But the poor naked children with their thumbs in their mouth did not escape our eyes when we passed through a village. There were several houses blown down by a storm.
 
The sun was bright. We started singing. Our boat was nearing the shore. After sometime we stopped singing. As we reached Barisal Ghat and got down the boat, the Ghat on either side was full of people. Some of them were bathing. Boys were swimming some women were going home with jars filled with water. We saw the farmers working in the field. The scenery was very charming. Then the sun was setting. it seemed to be sinking into the water of the river. We enjoyed all these things. Thus our journey came to an end.
 
Conclusion: It was the most pleasant journey of my life. The journey gave me an opportunity to see the charming natural sights of rural village. I shall never forget it.
YOUR FAVOURITE GAME/ THE GAME YOU LIKE BEST/FOOTBALL
 
Introduction: There are many kind of game in our country. Of all games, I like football most. It was first played in England. Now it is played in all countries of the world.
 
Why favorite/Why you like it: Football is my favorite game. Because it has some advantages. It is not as costly as cricket. It gives us much pleasure. It is an exiting game. It thrills both the players and the spectators.
 
Description: Football is an outdoor game. It requires a big field. It 120 yards long and 80 yards wide. There are two goal posts at each end. The game is played between two teams. Each team has eleven players. Of them one is goalkeeper, two full backs, three half backs and five forwards. There is a referee to conduct the game.
 
How played: At the beginning of the ball is placed at the centre on the field. The referee whistles and the game begin. Then each team tricks to pass the ball through the opposite goal post. But they cannot touch the ball with hands. Only the goalkeeper can touch and catch it. There is an interval of 10 minutes. The sides are changed after the interval. The team which scores more goals wins the game.
 
Merits/Usefulness/Advantages: The game of football teaches us obedience to rules. It also teaches discipline. Co-operation and leadership. It improves the health of a player and makes him prompt. Careful strong and hardy.
 
Conclusion: Though the game of football has some risks of being injured. It is liked by all.
PRIZE GIVING CEREMONY AT YOUR SCHOOL
 
Introduction: Prize giving ceremony of a school is a glad day. On this happy day prizes are given in a meeting. The students decorate the school building with leaves and flowers. They sing, dance and recite poems before the invited guests. 
 
Ceremony at school: This year the prize giving ceremony of our school came off on Sunday last. The meeting was held at 4 p.m. The D.C. present over the function. This national flag was hoisted by the president. The students sang the national anthem The Headmaster read out the annual report. The students sang danced, recited poems and staged a one act drama.
 
Distribution of prize: All last the President gave away the prizes. Each prize consisted of some useful books. The books were beautifully bound. Some prizes were given extra academic activities. One of my friends got a prize for good conduct. 
 
President's speech: At last the President stood up in a neatly word speech he congratulated the prize winners. He asked other students to work hard so that they might get prizes the next year. He thanked the teachers for arranging such a meeting.
 
Conclusion: At last a student of class VII sang the closing song. The Headmaster offered his heart-felt thank to the President and the guest. The ceremony ended at 5 p.m.
CRICKET
 
Introduction: Cricket is an English outdoor game. Now a day it is a most popular game all over the world. In Bangladesh it is very popular game. The students and other like to play it.
Players, play ground and equipment: The game of cricket is played between the two parties of eleven players. It requires a very plain ground so that the ball may roll on smoothly. Two sets of wickets with bails, two bats and a ball are necessary for this game. The wickets are pitched 22 yards apart from each other.
 
How to play: It is played between the two parties. One side comes in for batting and other side engages itself in fielding. Two of the players of one team come to bat all the players of the others party try to bowl them out. Some batsmen are caught out, some are bowled, some are stumped out and some are run out. In this way ten players of the batting side go on scoring runs. There are two umpires who conduct the game. The team that makes the greater number of runs wins the game.
 
Popularity: Cricket becomes very popular recently in Bangladesh. Bangladesh cricket team has got some victory on cricket in foreign countries. The have got a desirable name and fame for the country. So playing is held in every nook and corner of Bangladesh.
Benefits: The game of cricket is a healthy game. All the limbs and muscles of the body are fully moved and exercised in it. It develops team spirit. It also teaches the players patience, perseverance, discipline, obedience and many other useful virtues.
 
Conclusion: This is a popular game in all the countries of the world. It is popular in Bangladesh. We hope, cricket players of Bangladesh will achieve a great name and fame in the world.
HA-DU-DU
 
Introduction: There are many countries or local game in Bangladesh. Ha-du-du is the most important and interesting of them. It is a out-door games. Another game, similar to Ha-du-du and called Kabadi is our national game. The game played in our country side in a small but smooth ground. It can be played without spending much money.
 
The teams and the ground: Ha-du-du is played between two parties in an open field. Each of the parties has equal number of players form a team in this game. The ground is divided into two equal parts. A line is drawn in the middle to demarcate the respective zone of each team.
How played: The players of each party stand in respective zone. They stand face in a line or in the form of a semi-circle. As the game starts, the first team sends on of its players to dash into the zone of the opponent team. He has to utter all along the word: Ha-du-du, keeping up his breath. Holding his breath he must try to touch one or more players of the opponent team and dash back to his zone safe. If he can touch and reach his own zone, he remains in life. The opponent player or players touched by him are declared 'Dead' Dead player or players are out of the game temporarily. On other hand, if he is caught by the opponent, he himself is declared Dead, In this way the team by turns send their players, one at a time, to dash into the zone of the opponent party. A dead player can come back to life by the death of a member of the opposite party. The game come to end when all the players of a party are declared, 'Dead' The party that survives is said to have won the game.
 
Interesting parts of the game: The game of Ha-du-du, from the beginning to the end, is very interesting. Attacks and counter attacks make the game more interesting. The spectators enjoy the scene very much when the player uttering Ha-du-du is held back by the players of the rival team and he very helplessly tries to overcome them.
 
Conclusion: Ha-du-du is a game of our country. It can be played without any cost. it makes us strong and active. Once it was a very popular game. Now it has lost its appeal to the modern youths. In order to popularize it again. We should take proper steps to attract the youths to this game.
A FOOTBALL MATCH THAT I WITNESSED
 
Introduction: Of all the outdoor games I like football game most. So is an English game. The game is full of excitement and thrills. So, young people and middle aged people eagerly wait to witness a competitive game. I witnessed a competitive football match on the 12th of this month. It was played between our school football Team and the Best Eleven of our town. It was held in the Chandpur Stadium.
 
My interest in football as a game: The game of football is an international game. It is a played in a big and open field. A large number of people can enjoy the game. The game really full of excitement. The duration and co-operation of the game is not long. Otherwise, it teaches us discipline and co-operation. For all these reasons I have been interested in football since my childhood.
 
How the match began: The minutes before the starting of the match the players of both the team entered the field. The referee called the players and the managers of the team. Then the were introduce to the chief guest. Then the tossed up the coin. Our School team won the toss. The players took their respective positions. The referee blew the whistle and the ball was kicked off. Now the players of both the teams went into action.
The game in the first half: In the first half of the game both side made several attacks but to no purpose. It was a very tough fight. Nobody knew which team would win.
 
The game in the second half: In the second half both the sides made several concerted moves. But the defender of each side failed the attacks of the other The game reached the most critical point. Anything might happen at any moment. Only one minute remained Luck favored Our School Team. The centre forward player took a very nice pass from the right winger player and netted the ball. There were wild cheers and claps all around All on a sudden, the time was over.
Conclusion: I mean it was a well-played match. About all the teachers and students enjoyed the game. I shall remember it forever.
A RELIGIOUS FESTIVAL / EID-UL-FITRE
 
Introduction: Among the religious festival Idul-Fitre is the greatest one. On this day Muslims make charity and give away a fixed amount of money to the poor. This is called “Fitar” So the name of this festival is Idul-Fitre.
 
Description: There is a great éclat throughout the country on this day. Children pass the night in very excitement and make various preparations. Some of them use fire-work and decorate and illuminate their houses. As soon as the day dawn, all rise from their beds. They go to the pond or river and take bath. They put on new and finest dress. They use ator and make friendly embracement with one another. All take shemai and other kinds of sweets. Sweets are also distributed among the poor, Friends and relatives. The poor people flock to the house of the rich and are fed there. There is a flow of great joy and merriment everywhere.
 
The prayer: This being over, all proceeds towards the maidan to say prayer in congregation. Children also flock there in a large member to see the assembly of the people, When the prayer is over, the Imam delivers khutba. He explains the significance of this day. He directs people to do their duties to others. He tells then to forget all enmity and rivalry among them. In the end, they raise their hands to Munajat for pardon their sins to Allah.
 
Conclusion: Last of all, people embrace one another and invite to take sweet to every one’s house. In the evening, they visit the house of their relatives and friends and pass their times in marry making. It is our foremost duty to forget all enmity among us.
THE MAY DAY
 
Introduction: May Day is an international day. The first day of the month of May is called the May Day. This day is observed all over the world as a holiday. On this very day people commemorate the sacrifice made by some workers in the city of Chicago in 1886.
 
Background of the day: From time immemorial the capitalists engaged workers along with their wives and children in their factories and compelled them to work long hours. They were paid low wages and the workers could not manage the basic necessaries of life. Their condition was very miserable and pathetic. Not only that, the workers were oppressed and suppressed in many ways, So the workers started movements against the exploitation. First of fall the city of Chicago came onto action. They demanded some facilities and time limit of work. The capitalist government and its agents wanted to crush the movement. On the first day of May, 1886, they opened fire on the procession of the workers and killed some of them. Hundreds of the workers were injured by them. Some of the leaders were hanged. This was simply inhuman and brutal. The sad incident was taken seriously by the workers and the conscious people of the world. This day achieved many things for the workers, so this day is observed especially every year all over the world to get inspiration from the martyrs of 1886.
 
The object achieved: The supreme sacrifice made by the workers in Chicago opened a new chapter in the history of mankind. Before this incident the workers had to work for twelve of thirteen hours a day. Now their demand for eight hours work was accepted. They were also provided with some facilities of life.
 
Significance of the day: The day a protest against injustice, oppression and cruelty. This inspires the workers of all classes to remain united in their fight against any wrong. 
 
Conclusion: Workers remember with deep gratitude the sacrifice made by the workers of Chicago in 1886 and demand an exploitation free society and economic justice. They also bring out processions and hold meetings on this very day. We want that the sincere sacrifice of the workers should be valued.
EKUSHE FEBRUARY /SHAHEED DAY
 
Introduction: The 21st of February is a historical day of Bangladesh. The day is popularly called Amar Ekushe. It is a source of inspiration and energy of the Bangladeshi. It is a protest against exploitation and injustice. This day is a government holiday. We observe the day every year in a befitting manner.
 
Background of the day: On the 21st February in 1952, our language martyrs created a history and the day became memorable. In the then Pakistan we were majority in number. But the west Pakistanis controlled everything of the country. They understood it very clearly that their control over the majority would not last long if our language and literature were not crushed. In order to materialize their policy, they declared that Urdu would be the only state language of Pakistan. The very declaration was a crime. The opposition camp was not strongly organized in the babyhood of Pakistan. The University of Dhaka has always been politically sensitive. The brave students of the university came forward to meet the challenge. They opposed the declaration and started a movement. This movement is called the Language Movement. On the 21st February of 1952 the students of the university violated section 144 and brought out a procession protesting against the illegal and unjustified declaration. The rulers of Pakistan wanted to crush the movement at the point of the gun. But they failed to do so. Salam, Jabbar, Barkat, Rafiq, Shafiq and other unknown boys established the right of our mother tongue at the cost of their life. Not only that, Bangladeshi nationalism was born in the blood of the language martyrs. 
      
World recognition: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared the 21st February as International Mother Language Day as a mark of respect to our language Movement of 1952.
 
How observed / How the day is observed: Ekushe February is a national day of Bangladesh. But today it is an international day. The nation observes the day in befitting manner; the national flag is hoisted half-mast. Barefooted processions are brought out at dawn. The Mazars of the martyrs at Azimpur graveyard are visited and Fateha in offered there. All news media, offices, institutions, organizations Political parties, associations etc. follow their own programmers, The day’s programme includes seminars, cultural functions, exhibitions, competitions etc.
 
Conclusion: Ekushe February teaches us to protest against injustice and exploitation, it teaches us to love our motherland and mother tongue. It helps us to discover ourselves.
THE LIBERATION WAR OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Bangladesh is a proud nation as it emerged through a glorious freedom fight. Though we have got the freedom the spirit of the freedom fight is yet to be established.
 
Previous history of freedom fight: Bangladesh lost her independence to the British when Nawab Serajuddola was defeated in the battle of Palassey in 1757. In 1947, the British divided India into two sovereign states, India and Pakistan. Pakistan was created but the people of Bangladesh were in majority in Pakistan, They were deprived of all the powers Bangladesh was made o colony of West Pakistan. As a result the people of Bangladesh could not tolerate this and started a strong movement for their release.
 
Background of the Liberation War: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and some patriot of Bangladesh raised their voice of protest. In 1968, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and some other Bengalese were charged with a false case known as Agartola Conspiracy Case, but the people of Bangladesh started a strong movement against this case. Ayub Khan was compelled to release them. Then came Yahia Khan and he declared general election in 1970. The party of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman got absolute majority in the National assembly. But Yahia did not hand over the power and he stopped National Assembly. As a result, Sheikh Mujib started non-violent, non-co-operation movement. Yahia started a false dialogue with Sheikh Mujib and he began to increase the strength of army.
 
Freedom struggle of 1971: March 25 is a black day in the history of Bangladesh. On that night the army began to attack in the unarmed people of Bangladesh. Sheik Mujib was arrested and taken to West Pakistan. The independence of Bangladesh was declared. As the liberation war started, freedom fighters took birth overnight and faced the well-trained occupying forces to Pakistan fearlessly. At Mujib Nagar the government of the people republic of Bangladesh was formed on 17th April, 1971. But the Pakistan went on committing genocide to horror of the world. Women were raped and killed. The world press believed the atrocity of the of the occupying forces exceeded all limits. Millions of innocent Bengalese fled across the border in fear of their loves. So when their crimes were full, the Pakistanis came under direct attack of the combined forces of India and Bangladesh. The 16th December: The final stage of the war took a couple of days only. On the glorious day of 16th December, the Pakistani army surrendered. Our victory day confirmed the birth of Bangladesh on the world map.
 
Conclusion: Though we achieved our independence through much bloodshed, we still are not emerging as a powerful nation. We seem to have forgotten the supreme sacrifice we made in 1971. So our main duty should be to build up the country.
THE VICTORY DAY
 
Introduction: the sixteenth of December is our victory day. It is a memorable day in the history of Bangladesh. Our victory day confirmed the birth of Bangladesh on the world map. So it is the most important day in our national life.
 
Background of the Liberation War: Sheikh Mujibur Rahaman and some patriot of Bangladesh raised their voice of protest. In 1968, Sheik Mujibur Rahaman and some other Bengalese were  some other Bangalees were charged with a false case known as Agartola Conspiracy Case, But the people of Bangladesh started a strong movement against this case. Ayub Khan was compelled to release them. Then came Yahia Khan and he declared general election in 1970. The party of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman got absolute majority in the National assembly. But Yahia did not hand over the power and he stopped National Assembly. As a result. Sheikh Mujib started non-violent, non-co-operation movement. Yahia started a false dialogue with Sheikh Mujib and he began to increase the strength of army.
 
Freedom struggle of 1971: March 25 is a black day in the history of Bangladesh. On that night the army began to attack in the unarmed people of Bangladesh. Sheik Mujib was arrested and taken to West Pakistan. The independence of Bangladesh was declared. As the liberation war started, freedom fighters took birth overnight and faced the well-trained occupying forces to Pakistan fearlessly. At Mujib Nagar the government of the people republic of Bangladesh was formed on 17th April, 1971. But the Pakistan went on committing genocide to horror of the world. Women were raped and killed. The world press believed the atrocity of the of the occupying forces exceeded all limits. Millions of innocent Bengalese fled across the border in fear of their loves. So when their crimes were full, the Pakistanis came under direct attack of the combined forces of India and Bangladesh.
 
Dignity of victory: This is a day of great victor. This is a victory of the oppressed. This is the day on which we should take oath to rebuild this land as “Sonar Bangla.” So we should take the day every year in a befitting manner with a national dignity.
 
How the day is observed: It is a government holiday. We observe the day in a befitting manner. The national flag is hoisted in all private and functions are organized. Prayers for the well-being of the country are offered in mosques, churches and temples. The radio and the Television follow special programmes. School and colleges also enjoy the day with a befitting. The afternoon passes in various sports and games. The houses and buildings are illuminated in the evening.   
 
Conclusion: The National day reminds us of our hard won independence. It makes us resolved to retain our freedom at all costs.
YOUR AIM IN LIFE
 
Introduction: A man without aim is like a without ruder. He goes through life aimlessly and cannot prosper in life. So every man should choose a particular profession at the beginning of his life. It depends on the individual taste. Some want to earn money and some want to earn fame.
 
My aim: My aim in to serve the people. I have a mind to serve the suffering humanity. In order to fulfill my ambition, I like to take up the medical profession. In my ambition, I like to take up the medical profession. In my opinion this is the best profession. Hence, I wish to be a doctor.
 
Preparation: After passing the secondary School Certificate Examination, I shall get myself admitted into a college in the science group. After obtaining if Allah pleases. The I. Sc. Degree from there. I shall join the Dhaka Medical College for the M.B.B.S. Degree.
 
Service: If, by the grace of Allah. I can qualify myself of the Medical profession. I shall not accept any Government post, but I shall go to my native village. The villages of Bangladesh are the backbone of the country for the simple reason that the best majority of the population live in them. But as ill luck would have it most of the villages of our country are on the way to ruin. Malaria, Cholera and other diseases reign there supreme. I shall devote myself to the service of those suffering people. I shall help them in every respect. I will not take my fee from them and will provide them with medicine free of cost. But I shall not spare the rich. I shall try my best to set up a charitable dispensary in my village. I good health and enjoy the life in every way.
 
Conclusion: I shall not change my profession. Thus I hope. I will be able to do something for good for my future life and for the people.
YOUR DAILY LIFE/MY DAILY LIFE
 
Introduction: Everyone has a daily routine of work. I am a student. So I have also a routine. I do my daily works according to this routine.
 
Morning work: I get up early in the morning. After finishing my natural call, I brush my teeth, wash my hands and say my morning/Fajar prayer. Then I go out for a walk in the open air. I take breakfast at 7-30 a.m. Then I go to my reading room and prepare my lessons till 10.a.m. I go to bathe at 10.a.m. Then I take my meals and start for school at 1.30 am I reach before the school begins.
 
School work: I remain at school from 11 a. m. to 5.30 p. m. I always sit in the 2nd bench and lesson to what my teacher say. I never make a noise during the lesson time. We get rest at 2 p. m. I take Tiffin in the leisure period then I say my Zohor prayer in the mosque. When the school breaks up at 5.30 p. m I return home straight.
 
Afternoon work: After returning home. I take my Tiffin and go to the play ground. I play football, Volleyball, Cricket etc. I return home before sunset.
 
Evening work: In the evening I wash myself and say my evening prayer. Then I go to my reading room.
 
Night work: I learn my lesson till 11pm. Then I take my supper with my parents. In the meantime I say my Esha prayer. After this I go to bed and have a sound sleep.
 
Conclusion: Daily life is the best life for us. We learn discipline from this life. It brings happiness for us in future, so we should follow this routine.
STUDENT LIFE
 
Introduction: Student life is the most important part of every life. Our whole future depends on it. Student life is called the seed time of life.
 
Main duty: During student life our main duty is to acquire knowledge. For that we should read newspapers and magazines. They will enrich us mentally. We should organize debate and essay competitions in the school. We should write articles or the school magazine. All these will help us to become good speakers or writers in life they will prepare us for the battle o life.
 
Formation of character: Character is the crown of a man. It includes good manners, honesty, and truthfulness. Self discipline etc. Student life is the proper time to cultivate these qualities.
Social service: During the long vacation, we can take part in social service, We can organize nursing parties. During the time of epidemic or famine we can help people in many ways. It gives us practical training for the battle of life.
 
Physical exercise: A student should not study all the time. Besides studying he has many other duties to perform for his future welfare. After school hours we should take physical exercise. We can take part in various games and sports, they make us strong. They teach us the value of discipline.
 
Conclusion: Student life is the happiest period of our life. We are free from worries in this period. We feel happy in the company of our friends but we should shun. The evil company We should not keep company with those who smoke and take nonsense.
DISCIPLINE
 
Introduction: Discipline means obedience to rules and order of superiors. It is valuable in all walks of life. No society organization or institution or even family can exist without discipline. Lack of discipline brings about disorder, chaos for confusion. It is the very foundation of civilized life.
 
What of discipline: If we look to a family. We shall find that every member goes his or her own way that the family will be ruined. If nobody obeys the head of the family, that family also will be tor into pieces in no time. This is true for all institutions, society and organization. A school cannot run if the teacher does not obey the orders of the Headmaster and the students do not carry out the order of the teachers. If the citizens of a state do not respect and obey the laws of the land, the state will fall apart.
 
Discipline in army life: Discipline is the most essential quality of a solder. Indiscipline in the army means defeat and ruin.
 
Discipline in the play ground: In playground the players must obey the rules of the game and must respect the order of the captain and the referee. Without discipline no team, however, strong can win a match.
 
Necessary of discipline: When we are adult and are employed in office or business or in any walk of life, there is all the more necessity of discipline. We must obey the command of the office matter. We must be punctual in attending office. We must respect the rules of the office and perform our work and must be at our duty for the period of time. We are expected to be there.
 
Conclusion: Life without discipline can be compared to the sailing of ship without a rudder. So at all stage discipline must be observed.
NEWSPAPERS
 
Introduction: Newspaper is the store-house of the knowledge. It supplies us news from home and abroad. Newspaper comes to our door at the time of taking tea in every morning. We look over it with much eager. If it comes late we feel uneasy. It is a very important thing in the life of a nation.
 
History of newspaper: The newspaper was first published in China. It was published in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. There was particularly no newspaper before the English came to this sub-continent. The first Bengali Newspaper named Samacher Darpon was published by the missionaries of Sreerampore. We have now a good number of Newspapers in our country.
 
Kind of Newspaper: There are many kind of Newspaper such as daily, weekly, fortnightly and monthly. The daily Newspaper provides with current and fresh news of the daily, So people read it eagerly.
 
Value of Newspaper: Newspaper played an important role to all classes of people. It keeps us a close contact with the current affairs of the world. By reading Newspaper we can learn language, The businessman can know the world market price of their goods, Government can circulate the state policy, the sportsmen can know the news of their favorites game, the politicians can express the news of their views and the students are able to find their results.
 
Misuse of Newspaper/Demerits: Newspaper may be harmful to Nation; sometimes it misleads people by serving false news. We should be careful to them.
 
Conclusion: The value of newspaper is great. A newspaper of minimum price is a great value to us. We should read it regularly. Government takes measure for its development.
PHYSICAL EXERCISE
 
Introduction: Physical exercise means the movement of the limbs of our body according to rule. It’s keeps good health and promotes strength.
 
Various kind of physical exercise: There are many kind of physical exercised. All of them are not suitable for all. Different kinds of games such as Football, Cricket, and Badminton, etc. are good forms of healthy exercises? Walking, Swimming, Rowing, Riding, Racing, Gymnastics, etc. also good forms of exercises.
 
Important /Benefits: Physical exercise preserves and improves our health. It makes a man active, strong and keeps him free from all kind of diseases. Our body is like a machine. It can be kept in good condition by taking physical exercise, Physical exercise is most important for the students. They do hard mental work, so they need sound body and sound mind which depend on regular exercise.
 
Evils of not taking physical exercise: Those who do not take regular exercise, soon lose their health. They do not find interest and happiness in life. He is a burden to the family and to the society.
 
Conclusion: Health is wealth. It is the root of all happiness. Physical exercise enables us to achieve this wealth. It keeps body fit and healthy. So we should take physical exercise regularly. But we also should remember that over exercise is injurious to health.
MY HOBBY
 
Introduction: Hobby means an object of separate time pleasure. It gives mental relaxation. It makes life enjoyable. Everyone has a hobby of his own. I have one.
 
My hobby: Stamp collection is my favorite hobby. I find great pleasure collection tamps of different countries and different times, these stamps help me to enjoy the natural scene of those countries. They also help me to learn about the manners and custom of different countries of the world. They also help me to have the political view of the different countries.
 
Reasons behind the choice of my hobby: I have chosen stamp collecting as my hobby for than one reason. My father is a poor man who cannot afford to send me abroad to come in close contact with the different nations of the world and to know their habits and practice. So I have decided that stamp collecting will help me to make me known with the natural beauties, manners and practice of the different nations of the world. It is a source of pleasure too.
 
Usefulness: My hobby helps me to refresh my mind from the monotony of the routine works. It also helps me to think how Almighty Allah has beautified the world with varieties.
 
Conclusion: My hobby gives me much pleasure. It teaches me steadiness and patience.
PUNCTUALITY
 
Introduction: Punctuality in the quality of doing things at the right time. A punctual boy, for example, prepares his lesson timely and never legs behind the class. He is not late at school or college for his lessons. Not late in the playground for his games. If the habit grows well in the time he is never late anything.
 
An unpunctual boy, on the other hand, is ever late. He attends his school or college late, misses a part of his lesson. Disturbs the class. He can make little progress in students and in the long run to repent for his evil habit.
 
Merits of punctuality: Punctuality saves time. A train that starts or arrives at the scheduled time or motor service that observes punctuality saves a lot of time and save one from a lot of inconveniences. It known when exactly a steamer will touch at a station one can be their right in time. He has not to miss the steamer or wait indefinitely for its arrival.
 
Demerits of punctuality: An unpunctual man does not serve himself, not he has any consideration of others. It is really ill manners not to meet a friend at the appointed time. It is worse if men, who are address a meeting come late, keeps so many people waiting and waste their times. No excuse is enough for this want of good sense.
 
Late attendances of employees in an office or in a workshop cause disorder and sometime serious dislocation of work. It hampers orderly progress. It will be no wonder it is ends in some disaster. Napoleon Bonaparte lost the battle of Waterlogged because one of his General failed to come to his help in time.
 
Conclusion: Punctuality is great necessary in all walks of life. Punctuality should therefore, be cultivated from early age and observed strictly in all affairs of daily life.
CROPS OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Bangladesh is a land of flowers, fruits and crops. The people of the country produce various crops in their fields round the year. Rice, wheat, chilli, mustard, onion, garlic, turmeric, pulses, various fruits, jute, tea, cotton, tobacco, bamboo, sugarcane, rubber, etc., are important.
 
Classes of crops: Rice, wheat, pulse, chilli, mustard, onion, garlic, turmeric are food crops and jute, tea, tobacco, cotton, bamboo, tuber etc. are the cash crops. Food crops are consumed by the people and cash crops bring money to the people.
 
Food crops: Of all food crops rice is the main. It is the staple food of the Bangladeshi. There are four kinds of rice Aman, Aus, Boro, and Irri. Tice grows all over the country. Now-a-days wheat is grown plenty. Besides these, chilli, barley, jawar and bazaar grow in our country.
 
Cash crops: Of the cash crops jute, tea, cotton, rubber, and oil-seeds are important. Bangladesh produces about 80 percent jute of the world. Jute grows in all the districts. Tea is the next important item of exports. It grows in Sylhet and Chittagong. Cotton grows in Rangpur, Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Mymensingh and Chittagong Hill-tracts. It is used in the mills of the country. Rubber is being grown in our country. Various kinds of oil seeds grow in the country. A lot of tobacco grows in Bangladesh. These are exported abroad after meeting our need.
 
Fruits: Carious fruits like mangoes, pine-apples, oranges, jack-fruits, bananas, coconuts grow in our country. Bananas and coconuts grow all the year round.
 
Economic value of crops: The economy of our country depends on the production of crops. More food crops must be produced in the country. So that the country may meet the internal demand and earn money exporting abroad. More mills for jute, cotton, tea tobacco and hide may be set up so that the country may export finished goods.
 
Conclusion: Bangladesh is a land of crops, we should try our best to produce more and more crops. So that we may establish ourselves as a rich country in the world.
BIRDS OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: The natural beauty of Bangladesh has helped her becoming the abode of many kinds of birds. Here birds of different shapes, colours and sizes are seen to visit the land with the change of seasons.
 
Kinds of birds: In Bangladesh we see many kinds of birds. They are the Magpie, crow, the Kingfisher, the Sparrow, the Kite, the Crane, the Pigeon, the Bou-katha-kau, the Mayna, the Cuckoo, etc.
 
Description: The Magpie is our national bird. It is very nice to look at. It is small in size. Its body is covered with black and white feather. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh. The crow is a black and ugly bird. It is of three kinds- the rook, the jackdaw and the raven. It has long and strong beak. It builds its nest in the high trees. It eats rotten things, insects, rice and corns.
 
The kingfisher is a beautiful bird of Bangladesh. It is small in size. It has a long beak and a brown head. It feeds on small fishes; it lives by the side of a pond or a river. Another ugly bird of Bangladesh is the kite. It flies high in the sky. Its power of vision is very strong. It sweeps down and catches frogs and fishes. Sometimes it steals chickens. It builds its nest in the high trees.
The crane has a long neck and strong beak. It lives by a pool or a river. It catches fishes and lives on them. The pigeon is a small pet bird. Its body is covered with small and soft feathers. It eats rice, corns and insects. Bou-katha-kau is a seasonal bird of Bangladesh. It is generally seen in the spring season.
Another beautiful bird of Bangladesh is the Mayna. It is of brown having a yellow beak. Its legs are also yellow. It is a pet bird. It can easily imitate other’s voice. Many people keep it as pet. It lives on fishes and corns.
 
Conclusion: There are also many other birds in Bangladesh. They are of different colours, shapes and sizes. These birds have increased the beauty of Bangladesh to a great extent.
FLOWERS OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: The flower is a thing of beauty. It is the most beautiful creation of god. It adds to the beauty not only nature but also of everything. So all people are fond of flowers.
 
Where and when grown: Bangladesh is rich in flowers. Many flowers bloom in this country and add to beauty. Her bushes and gardens are full of flowers of many colours in spring. Other seasons have also their special supplies of flowers.
 
Kinds of flowers: Hasnahena. Beli, Gandharaj, Chameli, Kabari, Jui and Malati are also popular flowers. They are famous for their sweet scent. The Cosmos, The Dalia and other seasonal flowers add to the beauty of our gardens in winter. Besides these, wild flowers are found in plenty in Bangladesh. Some of them are very mice to look at. Of these flowers the Krishnachura is the most beautiful. Some flowers are both beautiful and sweet scented. Some are beautiful to see only they have no scent. Yet all flowers are loved by people.
 
Giant flowers: The Rose is called the queen of flowers. It is superior to all the flowers in colour and scent. The lots and the marigold are also common flowers. They have different varieties. The Sunflower is beautiful to look at. Sunflowers of different sizes are found in different places.
 
Conclusion: Bangladesh is full of flowers. Where we cast our gaze see flowers of some kinds or others.
FRUTS OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Fruit is a marvelous gift of god. Fruits are delicious and nutritious. All men, children or grown up people equally like fruits. Bangladesh is an orchard. Multiple varieties of fruits and seasonal fruits grow in our country. They may be grouped as all-season fruits and seasonal fruits grow in our country.
 
Seasonal fruits: There are many summer fruits. They are juicy and tasteful. Some are sweet and some are sour. Among them mango is the king. Mangoes are of many kinds. The Langra, the Fazli, the Gopalbhog and the Mohanbhog are the best kinds of mangoes. Jackfruit is our national fruit. It is an ugly-shaped common fruit. It is very tasteful. The guavas, black-berries, lichis and plums are smaller in size. They are very dear to the children. Melons tamarind, batabi, apples, pineapples and lemons are very juicy.
 
All-season Fruits: Banana, papaw, and coconut are all-season fruits. They are very popular. They are tasteful and nutritious. They grow all the year round. Of them banana is a most common fruit. It is of many kinds such as Sabri, Kabri, Champa, Sagar, etc. they differ in size and shape. They also differ in tastes. Of them Sabri is the best quality. Sagar is of the biggest size. The Sagar of Narsingdi and Rampal is very famous. Next to banana. Papaw is very common. It is used both as food and vegetables. Ripe papaw is the diet of the sickly people and the green papaw is used as vegetables. The coconut is used both as food and drink. Many sweet cakes are made of coconut. Very fine oil is also made of it. It is used in making sofa.
 
Usefulness: Fruits are very useful to all stages of people, children or grown up. All fruits are nutritious and good for health. Many of the fruits are used as diet by the sickly people. So, we should grow more fruits in our country.
 
Conclusion: Fruit is useful for our health. But we are not very careful about them.
THE RIVERS OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Bangladesh is mainly called a land of rivers. A network of rivers spread over it like the network of artery in human body and carried water to the remotest parts of the land. The three principal rivers of Bangladesh are the Padma, the Meghna and the Jamuna and many of the other rivers are their tributaries. They have tributaries as well. These rivers run into the mighty rivers and feed them.
 
The rivers and the land: Bangladesh is a vast of alluvial deposit. It is so because of these rivers. With the exception of a few tracts of land, the whole of Bangladesh is deltaic region made of the alluvial deposits felt by these rivers.
 
Fertility of the soil: Bangladesh is remarkable for is its fertile soil. For this, too, it is indebted to its rivers. The mighty rivers of Bangladesh carry an enormous amount of mud into the country every year and the monsoon floods take it to all the parts that are inundated during the wet months. When the water recedes, there lies a thick layer of mud deposit of silt. This adds greatly to the fertility to the soil.
 
These rivers serve as waterways: These Rivers as good water ways as well and help trade and commerce in a big way. Boats, launches and steamers carry more passengers and goods than trains, trucks and buses. Therefore, these rivers as an important means of transport also and they reach almost all the parts of the country.
 
Our rivers as a source of food etc.: Fish is an important wealth of Bangladesh of the great rivers is great storehouses of fish. A large bulk of the fish we need comes from these rivers. Quite a lot of people live by fish. A large number of them are prosperous.
 
Conclusion: Sometimes these rivers bring flood. Large volumes of water come from the upper reaches of the great rivers and rivers overflow their bands and submerge large areas, causing heavy damage to standing crops. In consequence, famine follows. These rivers then with turn out to be a source of sorrow and suffering.
THE RAINY SEASON OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: There are six seasons in Bangladesh. Each season roughly cover two months. The months the season lasts up to Ashwin in Bangladesh.
 
Description: During the season the sky looks terrible. Heavy black clouds charged with rain roll across the sky. They are close to the earth’s surface. Violent blasts of wind blow. The sun remains hidden behind the clouds for days together and falls in torrents. Sometimes rain continues for days together. Rivers, tanks and pools are all filled with water. Rivers get muddy and overflow their banks and then the fields appear to be a vast sea. In many villages one has to go about in boats. The landscape appears green. Birds like king storks and herons stand idle in water in search of small fishes. Aquatic birds float on the water for preying fishes. Small children go to fishing by boats and float paper-boats on the water.
 
Its cause: The monsoon blows over our country brimming water-vapour from the Bay of Bengal. This water-vapour cools when it comes in contact with the cold air. Then the vapour is condensed into cloud and it rains for days together. And we call it the rainy season.
 
Its demerits: The rainy season in Bangladesh causes some disadvantages. Excessive rain for days together makes the un-metalled roads muddy. Peasants and day-labourers cannot go out for work. So they have to starve at times. Games and out-door activities become impossible. Life becomes dull. Malaria, diarrhoea and dysentery break out in the rural areas. Snakes cannot live in their holes and come to human habitation on high land and at times bite people. Continual rain for some days causes floods. Crops are washed away, cattle die and poor people become homeless.
 
Conclusion: Despite of the4 disadvantages the Rainy season does well to Bangladesh.
WINTER IN BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: There are six seasons in Bangladesh. Winter is one of them. Winter sets in after autumn. It covers the months of Poush and Magh. It is the opposite of summer. The whole country shivers in cold. But it is not so painful in Bangladesh as in European countries.
 
Main Features: Winter is the season of mists. They begin to fall at ni8ght and lands until the sun rise in the morning. The mists also gather in drops upon the leaves of trees or the blades of grass. They look like pearls as they glitter in the rays of the morning sun.
 
Merits: Winter is not altogether a curse. It is a suitable season for various activities. In winter juice from the date tree is collected. Molasses, candies and sugar are made of it. So housewives make many kinds of cakes in this season. In winter vegetables and fruits like cabbages, cauliflowers, peas and oranges grow in plenty. Fish is also available in plenty.
 
Demerits: The night is longer than the days in winter. The cold wind blows from the north. The rich put on warm clothes by day and take shelter under the quilt at night. But it is a terror for the poor, because they cannot buy winter clothes.
 
Conclusion: In winter mature looks gloomy. Trees and plants are bare of leaves. Most of the birds migrate.
SPRING IN BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Spring is the best of all seasons. It is the loveliest and the most beautiful of all the seasons. Poets of different countries have sung its praise. The spring comes after winter and lasts from the middle of February to the end of March. There is life in nature and in man in spring. For this reason I like this season very much.
 
Description: In winter leaves of trees wither and drop off. Fields become dry and bereft of green. Flowers bloom in abundance. Nature takes a lovely appearance. The earth smiles with beauty. Various kinds of singing birds along with the cuckoo sing in joy. The sky is bright and the peasants are free for their harvest. Their women folk pay visits to the house of their parents after a year. Grown up sons and daughters are wedded in this lovely season. The village children play various games in the paddy field. Elderly people enjoy the might in gossips and games. Jatra, village fairs, cow races, kabigans are held in paddy fields.
 
 Crops of the season: Seeds of mustard, Jute, Boro paddy are sown in this season. Sweet fruits are found in plenty. Various kinds of vegetables and fishes sell cheap.
 
Duration: The duration of this season is very short. We hardly perceive when the season disappears. Because of its short stay, everyone longs for the season.
 
A season of music: Gentle breeze blows all day long during the season. Little waves in the rivers murmur. Singing birds pour out sweet motes all day long. Bees hum, boatmen and cowboys sing sweet songs. Butterflies dance from flower to flower.
 
 
Conclusion: Spring is the most beautiful and loveliest of all the seasons. We should take proper use of this season.
THE NATURAL BEAUTI8ES OF BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Bangladesh is full of natural beauties. Those who want to find out themselves from the endless beauties of the universal nature, there is an unseen appeal in favour of them with its clean blue sky, lovely rivers, flowers and leaves, shades of banyan trees and very cold rural gallery of this country.
 
Beauties of land: The land area of Bangladesh is about 144 square kilometres. The total area of its land is full of natural beautiful to look at. On the other hand, there are high hills in Sylhet, Comilla, Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts. Besides this, there are thick forests of which Sundarbans in Khulna is remarkable. The world famous Royal Bengal Tigers live in this forest. The scenery of the coastal area of Cox’s Bazar is very attractive not only for us but also for the foreign tourists.
 
Beauties of rivers: Bangladesh is a land of rivers. The Padma, the Meghna and the Jamuna are the big rivers of Bangladesh. The river water flowing over the plain land makes the land fertile for the growth of trees and plants. Bangladesh may be called a garden of natural beauties with effect of the blessing of these rivers.
 
Beauties of different seasons: Different pleasures of six seasons are going through the twelve months of the year in Bangladesh. In the summer, the sun grows hot and hurts the land. People become tired with the scorching heat of the sun but the summer fruits like mangoes, jack-fruits and litchis relieve us from tiredness. After then after then the sky becomes cloudy and the nature becomes cool with its heavy rainfall. The autumn comes at the time of leave taking period of the rainy season. The late autumn is the precursor of the spring. This is the cheerful time for the peasants as they keep themselves deeply engaged in reaping paddy and carrying it home, the winter comes with the biting cold. The nature looks dead and gloomy. The spring which is known to us as the king of seasons comes just after the winter. The flowers bloom in trees and give us sweet scent.
 
Conclusion: There flow endless beauties in Bangladesh all the year round. The wealth of natural beauties has had a great effect on the peoples mind and character.
FLOOD/FLOOSD IN BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Flood is a natural calamity. Now-a-days, it is an annual affair in Bangladesh. Bangladesh suffers from flood every year.
 
What flood is: Due to heavy rainfall or other causes when rivers or canals overflow their banks and sweep away villages and towns, then it is called flood.
 
Causes of flood: The causes of flood are many. It is mainly caused by heavy showers of rain. It may be caused by cyclones, tidal bores, or melting of snow on mountains.
 
Floods in Bangladesh: Flood visits our country almost every year. The floods that occurred in the year 1954, 1960, 1974, 1984, and 1987 were terrible. The floods of 1988 and 1998 were unprecedented. It has beaten all former records. It affected almost the whole of Bangladesh. It captured the city areas like Dhaka, Rajshahi, Rangpur, etc. the misery of the people knew no bounds.
Damage caused by flood loss and suffering havoc of floods: Flood causes a big loss of life, property and crops. It washes away villages, roads and even houses. Many human lives are lost. All the communication is suspended. People become muddy and unhealthy. There is scarcity of drinking water. The price of all daily necessities goes up.
 
Advantages/Usefulness/Merits: Floods do some good to us. It makes our lands fertile. It washes away filth and dirt.
 
Relief: Relief should be given properly to the flood affected people. They should be rehabilitated. Easy loans and seeds should be given to them.
 
Measures to control flood/Remedy: it is urgently necessary to take proper steps for the control of flood in our country. Both long and short time plans can be taken. The silted up beds of our rivers should be excavated for carrying more water. Proper embankments should be constructed along the banks of the rivers.
 
Conclusion: Flood causes a huge loses to our country every year. So we must control flood at any cost.
THE CITY OF DHAKA
 
Introduction: Dhaka is an important city. It is the capital city of Bangladesh. The town where I live is Dhaka.
 
Its situation: The city Dhaka stands on the bank of the river Buriganga. It is about ten miles long and three miles broad. The population of this city is about one crore. The city has two parts– the old tow and the new town. The streets and houses of the new town are big and beautiful than those of old town.
 
Its history: Dhaka was founded by Islam Khan during the reign of reign if Emperor Jahangir. Then it was the capital of Bengal. So it is also called Jahangirnagar after his name.
 
Important buildings: Dhaka is a city of buildings and mosques. There are many buildings, mosques, temples and churches in this city. The fort of Lalbagh reminds us the past glory of Dhaka. Besides these Bangabhaban, High Court, Supereme Court, Salimullah Muslim Hall, Baitul Mukarram, the Zoo at Mirpur, Children’s park, Ganabhaban, Parliament Building, General post Office, Bangladesh Secretariat, Dhaka Railway Station are worth seeing.
 
Communication: The city of Dhaka is connected with all the district towns of the country by train, bus and launch. It has air routes with some important towns of the country and of the world.
 
Centre of education: Dhaka is the greatest centre of education in Bangladesh. The University of Dhaka, Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka Medical College, Engineering University, Technical College, Jagannath University, Shaheed Suhrawardy College, Islamia Government College and a large number of government and private schools and colleges impart education to thousands of students.
 
Trade: Trade and commercial institutions are located at Tongi, Tejgaon and Mirpur; there are some small scale industries in the town.
 
Conclusion: Dhaka is an old and populous city. The city is famous for many cultural activities. Now it is one of the thickly populated cities of the world. The authority should take proper steps to improve the present condition of the city.
OUR SCHOOL LIBRARY
 
Introduction: A library is a store-house of knowledge. It is a collection of various kinds of books. It is a part and parcel of every educational institution. Because the knowledge and supplemented by studying books provided by a library. So we have also a library in our school.
 
Description of the library: Our school library is a big one in size. It has two parts. In one part there is a reading room. The reading room has a counter for issuing books. In the other part there are many almirahs. These contain rows of book. Our school library is a one-strayed modern building. It is called the library building. It is situated besides the science building of the school.
 
Number of borrowing books: Our school library is very rich. There are about six thousand books in the library. It contains different kinds of useful books for the students of different classes. It contains novels, dramas, story books. Biographies, autobiographies etc. different kinds of books on arts, science and commerce are in its collection. The library also contains reference books for the use of the teachers.
 
Method of borrowing books: The library is well-managed by a librarian and his assistants. The students of the school are issued library cards to borrow books. The assistants find the selected books and supply them to the students. They are allowed to keep the books at home for a week only. The teachers can borrow the reference books. But the students are not allowed to borrow the reference books. They can read them sitting in the reading room.
 
Rules followed: Every class has a period which is meant for library work. In that period the students of the particular class are allowed in the library room for reading and borrowing books. The students who intend to borrow books have to follow the method of borrowing.
 
How helpful: Our school library is very helpful to us. We get direct and indirect benefit from it. We get the direct benefit from the library when we read the library books ourselves. Again we get the indirect benefit when our teachers read the library books to prepare themselves for class room teaching.
 
Conclusion: Our school library attracts us very much because it is a sacred place for reading and learning. We are really proud of our school library.
CYCLONE BANGLADESH
Or, THE CYCLONE OF 1991
 
Introduction: Bangladesh is punished by cyclones almost every year. The reason in its geographical location on the Bay of Bengal. So the depressions formed on the bay travel upward and hit the coastal areas of Bangladesh.
 
The occurrence: First the depression is formed on the sea. The sun shines hotly on the sea. The air of a particular area lightens up. The colder wind from the surrounding area rushes to occupy this vacant space. The low pressure is formed. The depression gathers force and spirits forward towards northeast. The wind blows strongly. Thunder and lightning accompany the gales. The waves of the sea become unruly. The cyclone is formed land it hits the land maliciously.
 
The cyclone of 1991: A severe cyclone blew Chittagong and adjacent areas on April 29, 1991. It was the strongest storm, we have ever witnessed. There was intolerable heat for a few days. The sky was overcast and gloomy. The trees looked contemplative. It was a Monday. By 9 o’clock at night gusty winds began to blow. Thundering sounds started booming. The big trees shook violently and they looked so supple. By twelve midnight the cyclone began to rage demonically. It continued like that for four hours. Only by 9 the following morning the cyclone completely subsided.
 
The aftermath of cyclone 1991: The aftermath of cyclone 91 was massive. Trees and houses were blown away like peanut shells. Many boats were blown inside the land at Chi8ttagong. The loss of cattle and the damage to property were huge. Almost 5,00,000 people were killed.
 
Conclusion: the cyclone shelters should be erected on the coastal area. The cyclone signalling system also should be modernized.
MY COUNTRY
 
Introduction: The name of our country is Bangladesh. It is one of the most beautiful countries of the world, with its green fields and lots of trees and plants. It became independent in 1971 through a bloody struggle. About thirty lakhs people laid down their lives for the cause of independence.
 
Situations and area: Bangladesh lies in the eastern part of south Asia. It is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the south and borders on India and Myanmar in the east, and only India in the west and north. Its total land area including rivers is 1,47,570 square kilometres.
 
Population: Bangladesh is a small country but its population is large. The present population of our country is about one hundred and thirty millions. It is increasing day by day.
 
Main rivers: Bangladesh is a land of rivers. It is criss-crossed by hundreds of big and small rivers. The Padma, the Meghna, the Jamuna, the Brahmaputra and the Karnafuly are the big rivers of them.
 
Main pots: There are many poets in Bangladesh. Kazi Nazrul Islam, who died a few years ago, is our National Poet. Jasimuddin was also a great poet. Sufia Kamal and Shamsur Rahman are most famous.
 
Natural beauties: The natural beauties of Bangladesh are very charming. The Sundarbans, Rangamati and the tea gardens of Sylhet are very attractive. The Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach with its green background likes very charming. It is called the largest sea beach of the world.
 
Conclusion: Bangladesh is a beautiful country but most of its people live below the poverty line. They work very hard, yet they do not have enough food to eat. However, our government has started a campaign for poverty. We hope that our country will be free from hunger and poverty by the early part of 2lst century.
MY FAVOURITE TEACHER
 
Introduction: Teachers are our guides, philosophers and friends. I like and respect all my teachers. Each of them has his own qualities and I am grateful to all of them, for what they have done for me. But my favourite teacher is Mr. Nazrul Islam who teaches us English.
 
His Academic qualifications: Mr. Nazrul Islam is an M. A. M Ed in English. I have heard that he was a very meritorious student.
 
Why I like him best: I like him best for many reasons. He teaches us English literature and one can see that he loves his subject. My favourite teacher gas a good voice. When he speaks everybody has to listen to him. I listen to him whenever he says anything. He is an ideal teacher. His noble character, art of speaking, method of teaching charm me much. He does not talk much. His mood of speaking is simple, distinct and forceful. He maintains discipline in our class. He does not like physical Punishment. His advice and instructions from his smiling face impress is all. He shares our joys and sorrows. He guides us in all possible ways. He helps the poor students with money and books. He checks and reforms the students who have fallen in the evil company. For all these reasons I like him best.
 
Conclusion: Mr. Nazrul Islam is a gentleman of decent taste. He is neat and clean in habit. He lives a very simple life. A teacher like him is a pride for any institution. Like many others, I have found him to be an ideal teacher.
FOOD PROBLEM IN BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Once Bangladesh was the store house of crops. But those happy days have gone away. Now, we suffer much from food deficit. It has become a cha challenge to our existence.
 
Present condition of the problem: Mainly the condition of food problem depends on production of crops and its utilization. Now our farmers suffer from real valuation and utilization of their gotten crops. They may be rich if they get these facilities.
 
Cause of the problem: There are many causes of food problem in Bangladesh. Our cultivation system and other kinds of ways of growing food are defective and unscientific. Mainly, natural calamities like flood, cyclone, drought and insects destroy our standing crops every year. Moreover, for the illiteracy of our farmers cannot produce desired food. That is why we have food problem.
 
The role of the government: There are some dishonest businessmen who make artificial problem by storing food for more benefit. Here the government has a strong role to play. It must at once arrest the dishonest businessmen and punish them. The government should import the more needed food items such as rice, sugar, salt, chilies and onions. Even the government has to prevent black marketing by police force.
 
Solution: To solve the problem scientific methods of cultivation and co-operative farming system should be introduced. The farmers should be supplied with better seeds, manure, loan etc. by the Government. The instruments of irrigation system for the dry season should also be corrected by the Government. Above all, steps should be taken to remove illiteracy from the society, so that the farmers can learn easily to utilize mechanical ploughs and to apply insecticides and fertilizers timely.
 
Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say, food problem is both nature-caused and man-made. We should activate all our efforts and expertise to remove these causes, and make Bangladesh self-sufficient in food.
POPULATION PROBLEM OF BANGLAADESH
 
Introduction: Bangladesh became independent only a few years ago. It is a small country as well as a developing country. It faced with many problems. But the most complicated problem is it’s over population. Now it is a national problem. This problem resists all of our prosperities.
 
Present condition: About 130 million people live in Bangladesh. Still about 360 mew children are born every day in this country. If this continues them the population of the country will be double in 30 years. But the wealth of the country is limited. So with the growth of the population, need of country is increasing day by day. It causes shortage of food, houses, and clothing’s. Again the hungry and ailing children do not turn into manpower. They are constantly becoming the burden to the society. The Government has to spend a lot of foreign exchange every year to import food for hungry people.
 
Causes of the problem: Majority of the people of this country are illiterate. They do not understand what should be done and what should not be done. On the contrary, early marriage, polygamy and over the entire monsoon which comes from the Bay of Bengal are the causes of over population. Without these, the death rate is decline owing to better sanitation, improved medical facilities etc. so, the population is increasing day by day.
 
The future of the problem: The population of Bangladesh has increased by three percent during the last ten years. If the rate remains constant, the tot6al population of our country will be double by the next twenty years. So, it will be serious then.
 
Solution of the problem: With the natural resources we must increase our food production to reset the problem. We also should check the birth rate by family planning. The system of polygamy and early marriage gave to be stopped. After all, we should avoid the religious superstition. 
 
Conclusion: the Government should try his best to control birth rate. Family planning should be made more popular. Lessons should be taken from the world situation. If nothing positive to check this alarming growth of population is not taken now, a very dark future will be in store for this nation.
VISIT TO A PALCE OF HISTORICAL INTEREST
 
Introduction: A visit to a place of historical is interesting and educative. It takes our mind back to the glorious past. It presents before our eyes old age pictures. Recently I had a visit to Mainamati a place of great historical in Bangladesh.
 
The visit: I together with three friends of mine got into the Comilla bound bus from the Saidabad Bus Terminal. We reached there at 10 a. m. the place is about sex miles away from the Comilla town. We went there by a baby taxi. The place was isolated. We found many people like us who came to visit ‘the Shalban Bihar. The place is uneven and there hilly areas scattered here and there. I was astonished to see the old relics of the Shalban Bihar. We went to the nearby museum. We went round its different sections and saw the relics of the ancient Buddhist civilization. It seemed to me that I was in that age them. I forgot my existence. All these relics suggested old age pictures to another and saw with great curiosity all the things that are worth seeing. Our imagination went back to the distant past and it was greatly stirred. We felt glory in thinking that we had such a rich civilization. I knew many things from the Information Board. We rounded the place several times and then took some refreshment at the restaurant near the Museum. We felt tired and started for the Bus Terminal to catch a Dhaka bound bus.
 
Conclusion: A visit to a place of historical interest is always instructive. It gives us a practical knowledge about the glorious past. It supplements our knowledge that we get from books. The memory of the visit is still fresh in my mind.
FARMERS OF BANGALDESH
 
Introduction: Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural country. Agriculture is the base of its e4conomy. The man who cultivates land is called a farmer. Farmers grow crops which is the most important thing of basic needs. They are the backbone of our country.
 
Characteristics of farmers: There are three classes of farmers in our country. The rich farmers the, middle class farmers and the landless farmers. Most of the farmers in our country include middle class with a small piece of land. Farmers of this class usually till land with their own bullocks and they hardly can grow much food as per their demand. The rich farmers are very few in numbers and they get a small share of crops with the land owners.
 
Methods of farming: The methods of farming in our country are much backdated. Majority of the farmers are poor and illiterate. They cannot afford to buy modern tools of cultivation. They plough their land with bullocks and use sickle to cut the grains. They also do not know how to cultivate land in the scientific method. This results unsatisfactory yield from the cultivated land.
 
Condition of the farmers: The life standard of the farmers in our country is very low and they are to suffer even from the lack of fundamental needs of life. They are ill-fated, ill-treated and deprived from the light of modern science. They work hard but do not get proper nutriment. As a result they suffer from various diseases. Their children do not receive good education and follow the path of their for-fathers.
 
Stops to taken: Some effective steps should be taken to improve the socio-economic conditions of our farmers. They should be taught the modern scientific method of cultivation. They should be given hybrid seeds, right kind of pesticides and balance dose of fertilizers so that they may grow more food. Justified price of the agricultural production should be ensured so that farmers may get right price. Irrigation facilities should be ensured and farmer should get loan on low interest.
 
Conclusion: The development of our country is mainly dependent of the improvement of our agriculture. We should not neglect our farmers and all possible steps should be taken to improve their condition.
OUR NATIONAL FRUIT/JACK-FRUIT
 
Introduction: Jack-fruit is our national fruit. It is the biggest fruit of all the fruits. It is a very delicious fruit and almost everyone likes it. This fruit is easily available in anywhere of our country.
 
Where grown: Jack-fruit grows in all the parts of our country. But the relatively high level soil where rainfall is severe is suitable for Jack-fruit. It grows much in Tengu of Tangail, Modhupur and Vawalgarh, Jessore, Rajshahi, Dinajpur and Saver.
 
Description: Jack-fruit is a very large fruit. It weighs five to forty kg. It has prickly cover and looks yellow to yellow-black. It contains large number of cells which is yellow in colour. Each cell has a stone. We eat the cell. This cell also gives juice when it is squeezed. The Jack-fruit tree may be very big. Naturally Jack-fruit is found in the tree from its top to bottom. It also hangs to the narrow branch. Baishakh to Ashar is the season of jackfruit. Jack-fruit takes about three months to be ripened. 
 
Food value: This fruit is a fruit of high calorie. It contains various vitamins, especially vitamin A. vitamin A is very essential for our eyes. The juice of this fruit is used to make. Its cell with muri is very popular to the rural people. The green jack-fruit is also cooked very nicely. This stone is cooked as a substitute if not it is eaten by cattle.
 
Economic value: The Jack-fruit is very attractive to the foreigners. So we may earn foreign currencies by exporting it. The Jack-fruit tree is also very useful. The wood of this tree is of very attractive colour and lasts for a long time. This wood is used to make various furniture. The leaves of this tree are also useful. Goats eat the leaves and the leaves are also burnt to cook food.
 
Conclusion: Jack-fruit is very useful fruit and the climatic condition of our country is suitable to grow this fruit well. So we should grow more Jack-fruits. We should think for the best possible method to preserve this fruit so that it may be available throughout the year.
MY MOTHER
 
Introduction: The word Mother is very sweet to me. She carried me into herself before coming in to this earth. When I was a mere child, she suckled me and thus I was getting growth. I can never forget my mother. All of my dreams surround her. I get mad if I do not see her. She is my shelter in any danger.
 
Mother in religious concern: Mother’s position in the family is very high. In the religion of Islam, it is said that the heaven of offspring lies under the feet of mother. Allah has also ordered us to serve our parents if we want to serve anyone but Him. All the religions have shown respect to mother.
 
My busy mother: My mother is a housewife. She is to do all the household works of our family of seven members. She takes after us and also helps my father is his works. She herself prepares our dresses. She looks, washes cloths, cleans house etc. her performance in maintaining the family is very excellent. She does not feel tired to do work. I get surprise that she starts working early in the morning and continues till about midnight. Every member of our family praises her talent. She is very sincere about hygiene. Whenever we get ill she serves to us. She does not hesitate to sacrifice any of her happiness to see smile on our faces. I am very proud of my mother.
 
My sad mother: My mother is a graduate. Even then is absolutely housewife. She is capable to have any respectable job. But my father has restricted her to go outside for any job. My mother was upset with my father’s conservative attitude. But she had nothing to do. She cannot forget that in judgment of my father even today.
 
Conclusion: Mother and motherland is superior to Heaven. My mother is all of my life. I can think nothing my mother. I love my mother more than my life.
    TRADE FAIR
 
Introduction: Trade fair usually means the exhibition of various commercial products is an area enclosed for the purpose. It is organized by those who are engaged in trade and commerce specially the industrialists. It is the best way to draw people an idea of the state of things in those lands.
 
Place and duration: It is usually placed where the transportation and communication from all parts of the city is convenient. Trade fair is seen mainly in town, not in rural areas. Its duration is normally fifteen days to one month. It takes place once a year.
 
Organization: A trade fair is generally organized under the auspices of the government. A committee is formed with officials and non-officials to organize it. Its maintenance cost is met with the sale of tickets or entry and the different stalls and pavilion.
 
Description of the trade fair: The place is surrounded by strong enclose with gats for entrance and exit. The enclose area is divided into separate plots. There is placed a graphic chary of the location of the fair in the entrance. Temporary stalls are erected in rows in each plot. The stalls owners decorate their stalls with lights of various colours to attract the people. The organizing authority decorates and illuminates the area. There are a good arrangement of car parking, sanitation, praying and all other comforts and enjoyments. Tea stalls, fast food shops, restaurants, moving cars of cold drinks are available there.
 
Usefulness: A trade fair is of great importance. All these enable the people, not only to improve their own lot but also to contribute to the property of their country. It has a great educative value also. The knowledge and culture of other countries come to us as well as we can also represent it to them. It is a source of amusement and refreshment too.
 
Conclusion: A trade fair is a good media for advertisement, better than that through papers. Undoubtedly a practical demonstration. Of thing is more affective to make things impressive. So trade fair should be organized every year for the social as well as economical welfare of country.
    BANGABANDHU BRIDGE
    Or, JAMUNA MULTIPURPOSE BRIDGE
     
Introduction: Bangladesh is a land of rivers. Hundreds of rivers are criss-crossed all over the country. The rivers play different roles for the welfare of the people of Bangladesh in construction of Bangladesh in different ways. The Jamuna is one of them and the achievement in the history of economic development of the country.
 
The naming of the bridge: At the very beginning it was named the Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge. But in 1997, according to the decision of the Cabinet Ministers’ Council conducted by the government, it has been named as Bangabandhu Bridge.
 
Necessity of the bridge: Bangladesh is divided into two parts. Namely East Bengal and South Bengal by the river Jamuna. In the way of transport and communication system, the mighty Jamuna so long stood as great stumbling block. This river flowing through the middle of the country largely impeded the transport probabilities to develop harmoniously throughout the country. So the demand to construct a bridge over the Jamuna came from the people for long days and the necessity of Bangabandhu Bridge became national.
 
Various steps for the bridge: Various steps were taken to construct this bridge at different times. The first demand was raised in 1963. In July 1996 a bill was adopted in this regard. In this bill it was said that a bridge must be constructed over the river Jamuna, With reference to it, foreign specialist surveyed many times in 1976 and 1982 respectively. However, execu7tive body was formed to construct the bridge in 1985 under an ordinance. In 1991 the Government of the bridge. After three years with the help of A. D. B. World Bank and Japanese government the construction started in reality in October 1994. It was completed in June, 1998.
 
The size of the bridge: The Bridge is 4.8 kilometres long and width of the main bridge is 18.5 meters. There are 49 spans of the bridge. The total pillars are 121 in number. The average length of the pile is 48 meters. The joint road of the east bank is 16.92 kilometres and that of the west bank is 16.94 kilometres in length.
 
Expenditure of the bridge construction: The expenditure cost of the bridge is very big. It costs 962 million U.S dollars out of 200 million dollars have been donated by each of the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and Japan and Bangladesh has borne 362 million U.S dollars.
 
Inauguration of the bridge: The Bridge was inaugurated on 3rd June, 1998 by Sheikh Hasina, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh.
 
Conclusion: The Bridge is a great achievement of Bangladesh. We hope, the bridge will help rapid economic development of the country.
    THE LIFE OF A GREAT MAN
    Or, HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (SM.)
     
Introduction: On the eve of Hazrat Muhammad’s (sm.) birth, Arabia was such the age of darkness. It was the period of evils and oppressions. There was no legal social customs there. The Arabs were superstitious, ignorant and unbelievers. They lost their moral character. The Arabs were so much corrupted. Under such circumstances Allah sent our beloved Prophet Hazrat Muhammad’s (sm.) thee to teach the naughty Arabs good virtues.
 
His birth and early life: Hazrat Muhammad’s (sm.) was born at Mecca in Arabia in 570A. D. His father’s name was Abdullah. Hazrat Muhammad’s (sm.) lost his father before his birth. His mother Amina also died when he was of sex years only. His grandfather, Abdul Muttaalib then brought him up. After his death, his uncle Abu Talib took over his charge.
 
His thought for people: The Arabians were then idolaters. They drank wine. They quarrelled with one another. This shocked the boy Muhammad. He always thought over removing all these things.
 
He preached Islam: Hazrat married Khadija, a rich lady. This removed his want. Then he began to meditate on Allah. He did this for fifteen years in the cave of Hera. At the age of forty, he preached Islam.
 
The Hizrat: The Meccans conspired to kill Hazrat Muhammad’s (sm.). So he left Mecca for Medina with his followers. It is called the Hizrat. He built an Empire at Medina. He was the builder of the Muslim society. Hazrat Muhammad’s (sm.) performed his last Hizrat in 633 A. D. at the age of sixty-three only.
 
Conclusion: Hazrat Muhammad’s (sm.) is the Prophet of Muslims. He is the last and the greatest of Prophets. He was kind, truthful, generous pride less and sweet tongued. He loved the children and the whole of mankind.
A. K. FAZLUL HAQUE
 
 
Birth: A. K. Fazlul Haque was born in a respectable family of Barisal. His father’s name was Muhammad Wajed Ali. Mr. Wajed Ali was a famous lawyer. A. K. Fazlul Haque learnt Arabic and Persian at home. He completed his secondary education with credit at the age of fourteen only. He passed the B. A. Examination in 1893. A. K. Fazlul Haque took his M.A. degrees from the Calcutta University.
 
Government services: A. K. Fazlul Haque at first accepted the post of a Deputy Magistrate. This service could not satisfy him Court. The condition of the farmers and the poor people drew his attention. He wanted to improve their lot. So he took part in politics.
 
Political life: Fazlul Haque’s political life was very successful. He was the Chief Minister of Bengal from 1937 to 1941. In 1935he became the first Muslim Mayor of Calcutta City Corporation. He was the Advocate General, the Chief Minister and the Governor of the then East Bengal. In 1931 he attended the Round Table Conference in London. In short, A. K. Fazlul Haque was a burning star in the political field of the subcontinent. He founded the Debt Settlement Board and saved poor peasants from the cruelty of the creditors. He founded Calcutta Islamia Collage and many other educational institutions.
 
Conclusion: A. K. Fazlul Haque did many things for the people of this country. He died his physical death on the 27th April, 1962 but he lives and will live in his works.
VALUE OF TIME
 
Introduction: Time is the most valuable thing in our life. It is more valuable than health and wealth. Our life is made of moments and hours. So to kill time is shorten life.
 
Time and tide: Time and tide wait for none. Once passed they never come back. But they differ from each other too. Time does not follow in vain. It makes the land fertile when it passes away. Time, if it is wasted makes our life barren and if utilized, it makes us happy.
 
Right use of time: Success in life depends on the right use of time. Our life is very short. But within this short time we have to do various duties. So we must be punctual. There should be time for reading, time for play, time for other works, time for rest and time for prayer. All the great men make right use of time. Even the lower animals like bees and ants make proper use of time.
 
Evils of wasting time: Those who waste time can never prosper in life. Idleness is the roof of all evils. An idle man cannot earn his living. He must not defer a work for tomorrow and it never done. Moreover, an idle brain is the devil’s workshop.
 
Conclusion: The benefits of time are too many. So we should make proper use of time. We must not defer anything for future date.
DIGNITY OF LABOR
 
Introduction: Labour is full of dignity. We are destined to undergo labour. Allah has given us hands to work with. We should use them as long as we are strong and able. So it is our dignity to do our work with own hands. We should not sit idle and try to have over work done by others.
 
Blessing of human labour: It is a matter of dishonour to depend on others so man must earn his bread by sweat of his brow. For greater progress and more comfort man has to labour harder and harder. It is due to man’s hard labour that beautiful cities have grown up even in forest. Man has controlled rivers and made use of water flow by hard labour. He has been able to turn the barren deserts into fertile corn fields. So labour is at the roof of all human progress.
 
Essence of labour: Nothing can be done or gained without labour. We cannot fulfil our purpose if we do not work hard. We cannot get even idle bare necessaries of life if we are averse to labour. The value of labour has been accepted by all at all times in all countries. Labour is said to be worship. It is sacred and full of honour. There is nothing of dishonour to do one’s work with one’s own hand.
 
Labour’s life: Labour is sacred, because it keeps us alive. If a person does not labour, he must suffer in the long run. If the farmers refuse to plough land, they not only go without food but also make the entire nation starve. If the workers of mills and factories refuse to work, the whole nation is to be deprived of manufactured goods. So labour occupies an important role in human life.
 
Conclusion: Labour fills a person with a sense of dignity and independence. It gives him the true spirit of courage and self-conscience. He does not receive charity and earn his own labour. It is not a disgrace to be a shoe-maker but it is certainly a great dishonour to be a bagger.
PATRIOISM
 
Introduction: Patriotism means the love of own country. It is an inherent quality of very living being. Even the lower animals have some sort of love for their dwelling places. This sentiment is strongest in the nature of man.
 
Some examples: If we read history, we find many patriots who suffered great hardship even sacrificed their lives for the freedom of their motherland. Chand Sultana of Ahmadnagar fought against the Mughal Emperor, Akbar. She sacrificed her life for the freedom of her dominion. Joan Arc of France died for the defence of her motherland. Nawab Salimullah, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Maulana Showkat Ali, Shahid Titu Mir, A.K. Fazlul Hoque, Banga Bandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, President Ziaur Rahman and many others have earned immortal names for their self- scarifies for the country. Their names are written in history as the true patriots.
 
Real patriotism: True patriotism is rare. Love for country is nothing but a vain sentiment. It is not translate into action. It is our duty not only to love country, but also to see that we have done something for bettering it. We say that our heart bleeds of the sight of our country’s miseries and misfortune. We sometimes feel really miserable when we think how are she has fallen from her lofty ideals. But many of us do not care to remove the social evils. There is a great need for sincere worker who are ready to sacrifice their comfort, happiness and even their lives for the good of their country.
 
Its utility: A patriot’s heart yearns for his homeland, even when he lives a rich foreign land. A patriot lives for his country and dies for his country. His country’s interest is above all his personal interests. He is held in high esteem for his selfless activities and broad mindless. He is prepared to lay down his life for upholding the prestige of his country. A true patriot thinks night and day, for the well-being of his country and countrymen. He is honoured and respected at home and abroad. His activities inspire many others to inculcate patriotism. “Patriotism is a part of religion’, says Islam.
 
Conclusion: Everyone cannot be an active patriot. But everyone must have love for the land. This does not mean that he should hate other countries. A patriot shall not be a fanatic.
MY CHILDHOOD
 
Introduction: My childhood was happy. When I think of my childhood my heart fills with pleasure and joy whenever I am sick of the present. I seek relief in the past. I fondly recall the memories of my childhood. I wish all my days were as happy as my childhood days.
 
Play of childhood: On rainy and windy days, I could not go out. My grandmother would not let me go. She devised many ways to keep me occupied. From time to time she would tie a piece of thread to a stick and tell me that it was a fishing rod. This was used to fire my imagination. At once I look the stick and tied a small bit of something or other at the other end of the line. Then I threw the bet on the yard. The small pools of rain water were my ponds or rivers. Then for hours I played at anything.
Sometimes I played at keeping shops with other children. We used to set up both. There we stored leaves and such other thing. Small pieces of broken car than wares serve as coins. We would play for many hours and feel like being in a dream world.
 
Learning at home: In my childhood, I learnt the Arabic alphabet with great pleasure, but Bengali alphabet gave me some trouble. It was not, however, dull when I prepared. My eldest sister taught all the children of our family in the morning. Under her care and guidance we prepare our lessons with great interest. It was exciting too. We repeated our lessons in a singing voice and all the time we moved our body forward and backward. So, learning was a great fun to us.
 
Learning at school: After her marriage I began to go a school for children. There the school hours were from 8:00am to 11:00am during this period we learnt our lessons and took new lessons. This school was also an interesting place. There was a lot of fun there. There was learning but we learned with light heart. After the school hours I returned home. I spent the rest of the day as per my sweet will. I had three cousins of my age. I played with them. Those days continued for ever. I still cherish the sweet of my happy childhood.
 
Conclusion: After all my boyhood was very busy and charming.
OBEDIENCE TO PARENTS
 
Introduction: Obedience to parents is to obey what our parents tell us to do.
 
What our parents do: Our parents love us when we are young. They try their best to give us food and education. They lead us in the path of virtue. Our parents feel pleasure in our success and sorrow in our distress.
 
What is our duty: We should love our parents dearly, because they have brought up us loving care in our childhood. They have nursed us in our sickness and have given us education in our boyhood.
 
What the wicked sons do: There are some wicked sons who care little to parents. They always hate them. Even in their old days they drive them out from the house to beg. Such disobedient boys can never prosper in life.
 
Usefulness: The boy who loves his parents can love his countrymen. A disobedient boy cannot love his country, because he does not know how to love others. There is a wise saying” The mother and the motherland are superior even to paradise.” So we should learn the art how to love our country and how to love our countrymen.
 
Conclusion: In order to prosper in life we should obey and respect our parents regularly.
THE VALUE OF SCIENCE
 
Introduction: Science is a study of laws of nature. Ours is an age of science. We always feel the influence of science.
 
Kinds of science: There are different kinds of science. They sphere of life. Its blessings are enjoyed most in a town. Here the streets and houses are lighted by electricity. The offices are made air conditioned and electric lights are used to carry to official to the upper stories. Filtered water is supplied by electric machine. People take news through telephones. News is broadcast and songs and speeches are relayed by the radio. Newspapers, books and journals are printed in great numbers by the rotary press. The cinema animates life on screen. Mills and factories run with the help of science. Men of different countries talk though wireless and fly by planes. Scientific tools are used in cooking and heating. Medical science makes the use of X-ray and the invention of wonderful medicines to fight the deadly diseases. Through the grace of science education spread among the poor and ignorant people. In short modern civilization entirely depends on science. The most wonderful achievement of science is the Rocket.
 
 
Evils of science: Science is not an unmixed blessing. It brings miseries to the people. It has made our life complex and ruined our cottage industries. Now science is being used to manufacture deadly weapons. One Atom Bomb is enough to destroy a most flourishing city. If unfortunately the Third World War breaks out, the use of Atom Bomb and Hydrogen bomb by Russia. America and China may destroy human habitation from the world.
In this connection it should be borne in mind that science itself is not bad but it brings use for exit purposes by men.
 
Conclusion: Science is a great blessing if not applied to destructive purposes. It will bring a new area of prosperity and happiness.
THE CINEMA
 
Introduction: Cinema is a moving picture shown on a screen with the help of a projector. In its earliest days the picture could only move and it could no talk. But now it can move and talk. So, it is called “The Talkies”. Tomas Alva Addison invented the projector in 1890. That was like a camera.
 
Its working:  With the help of powerful cameras-pictures of moving and talking persons are taken on the film. These pictures are developed. When these pictures are projected on a screen the persons seem to move and talk as they did before.
 
Its merits: Cinema is kind of source of amusement. Busy people of the town refresh themselves in a cinema show after the day’s hard work. It has an educative value. Cinema can teach us history, geography, sociology, literature and even medical science. The best books of best writers are filmed and show to people and they learn much from them. Through film-industry some people earn a lot of money. A good cinema film can earn fame and foreign currency for the country. A good cinema also reforms the society.
 
Its demerits: For commercial purposes bad pictures are made. These are very harmful to teen agers and become menace to society. Mainly, who are not adult in mentally they should not see the cinema.
 
Conclusion: While making a film one producer must be conscious about this duty to the country. He must make a film that can primarily educate and reformate the spectator and earn money. Otherwise, the cinema will be the foe of the country.
DISH ANTENA
 
Introduction: It is sure that television is a best medium of entertainment. With the help of dish antenna we can see the programmers of the whole world.
 
A wonderful gift of science: it is a wonderful gift of science. With the help of dish antenna we can communicate with the whole world. Dish antenna is a great glorification of the modern civilization.
Dish antenna and the whole world: Dish antenna has united the separated countries of the world. We can see and hear every important matters of the world staying in our country through television, with the help of dish antenna. So it has united the whole world.
 
The importance of dish antenna: The importance is noted bellow:
(a) Dish antenna shortens the world.
(b) Dish antenna broadens world’s co-operation and communication.
(c) It is a great medium of getting commercial articles.
(d) It has a role in the world’s economy.
(e) It refines our culture and education etc.
 
Bad effects of dish antenna: The bad effect of dish antenna is noted bellow:
(a) Dish antenna leads the people of the world towards the ultra-modern and teddy life.
(b) It is destroying culture and religion.
(c) Dish antenna trough television shows naked and vulgar sights and sounds.
(d) It influences our youngsters to the moral degradation.
(e) It exaggerates the commercial articles for selling and buying.
 
Dish antenna and Bangladesh:  Bangladesh became victim to the vulgarism of foreign countries. Bangladesh is a poor country. But she has imported many dish antennas recently. It is a great menace to the total peace and harmony of Bangladesh. Our people don’t take dish antenna as a didactic basis. It may not appropriate to our country.
 
Educative value of dish antenna: The aerial help of television assist television to display the whole world’s program. It is fit for open education. It is also an instrument of national program.
 
Commercial value of it: Bad articles are shown in the screen of T.V as good articles with the help of dish antenna. As a result the customers are cheated. So, the bad articles are getting priority. But we get news of new prepared articles through television.
 
Conclusion: Television can display only one country’s program. But with the help of dish antenna we can see and hear the program of the whole world. A great Islamic thinker Rd. Shamshed Ali says, “Dish antenna has many good effects but it has also many bad effects. It fully depends on our adoption and adjustment.”
FEMALE EDUCATION
 
 
Introduction: Education is a crying need to all. Woman is one of half of our total population. If women folk remain illiterate, no national development can be done. So female education is must in our country.
 
Necessity: Without the help and whole hearted co-operation of women is not less important than that of men. A woman is the sister, the mother and the guardian of the family. A woman rears the infants, builds up them as a worthy citizen and leader. Women also play an important role in the economic field. So, to manage the family in a decent way a man depends on his wife. A housewife performs her household-affairs keeps poultry and thus helps the family economically.
 
Importance: Our prophet Hazrat Muhammad (sm) laid great importance on the education of both male and female. Without education a woman can’t do anything properly for her children and also can’t help them to lead a worthy life.
 
Obstacles: Some orthodox people speak against female education and create obstacle to it. It fact, it is an offence. We must educate women in nursing and household management, child-care, sewing and so on. Thus, they will be able to earn their living independently.
 
Present condition of female education: In our country Government has taken various steps of female education. For the leaner of secondary schools and higher secondary colleges female students are free from fee. As a result, the percentage of female education is increasing day by day and they are taking part in the developing works of the country.
 
Conclusion: Female education is a vital need to our developing Bangladesh. So, we should be up and doing for the spread of female education.
COMPULSORY FREE PRIMARY EDUCATION
 
Introduction: Education is the backbone of a nation. It is the fullest development of the body, soul and mind. Primary education is the basis of all education. So, it must be achieved first. In our country primary education has been compulsory.
 
Meaning compulsory free primary education: It means that every boy and girl of a fixed age (6 to 10) is required to have primary education by the direct help of the state. The state takes it as a bounden responsibility. Every boy and girl should respond to his great act of state. The government takes all liabilities of primary education. That’s to say, primary education has been made full free.
 
Reasons for making primary education free:
  • Poor parents can’t send their child to school because of their poverty.
  • It is compulsory to remove illiteracy from the country by hook or by crook. So, government has taken this step.
  • For the development of the country primary education has been made free by a poor country like Bangladesh.
  • To present a good nation government has taken this initiative.
 
The aims of the primary education: The aims of free primary education are noted here.
  • To remove illiteracy.
  • To develop body, morality, mentality, social and emotional personality of the children.
  • For growing the citizenship, patriotism, dutifulness and curiosity of the children.
  • To become persevering and laborious.
  • For learning good manner and thus other human qualities.
  • It is prepared the children to take later higher education.
 
The primary education of Bangladesh: An under-developing country like Bangladesh can’t prosper without removing illiteracy. Because of the fact that our total development is vitally connected with education. If primary education in Bangladesh is given top most importance and if we are able to advance to forward in a planned and disciplined way we will be successful.
 
Ways and means of making primary education compulsory: To make primary education compulsory the following steps must be taken:
  • Vacancy of the primary teachers must be filled up with the qualified teachers.
  • Primary education must be free and many schools must be set up.
  • Free books and dresses must be supplied.
  • Various teaching aids must be supplied.
  • The eagerness of education must be grown up to the mind of people.
  • After all, the teachers have to teach earnestly.
 
Conclusion: Compulsory primary education is the corner-stone of success. Government’s initiative in this respect is really praise worthy. We expect that for the development of our nation and country this program might be rendered into really.
HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY
 
Introduction: Honesty brings the success and happiness in the human life. It is the best virtue a man’s life. An honest man is loved, respected and trusted by all.
 
Position of dishonest man: The social position of a dishonest man is serious miserable. He leads an unhappy and mournful life. Because, when his dishonesty comes out or is proved nobody believes him anymore. His name and fame of the past is lost.
 
Example of history: All the great men of the world were honest. Our prophet Hazrat Muhammad (Sm) was the real symbol of honesty. Socrates, Aristotle, Hazrat Omar (R), Hazrat Abu Bakar (R) and many other men were honest in their words and deeds. In the history their honesty is immortal.
 
How to become honest: The poor or the rich, the high or low everybody may be honest. To speak the truth is the best way to be honest. The man who always speaks the truth is also loved by Allah. The story of the Hazrat Abdul Kader Jilani (R) shows the way of truthfulness to us and the obedience to his mother advice. On the contrary, the story of the liar cowboy remembers the result of his falsehood.
 
Conclusion: The real success of life depends on honesty. Honesty depend men and dishonest ruins men. In the Hadith “A dishonest man will never be allowed to enter into heaven”. So, if we wish to become successful in life we should try to be honest. We should always bear in mind that honesty is the best policy.
HEALLTH IS WEALTH/HEALTH
 
Introduction: Disease less and the sound condition of body mean health. Peace of mind fully depends on sound health. The health of a man is the greatest wealth of his earthy life.
 
An unhealthy man: An unhealthy man is the most unfortunate man in the world. He can’t do what he likes. He leads a miserable life. He may be rich but he can’t be happy. All are charm less to him.
 
A healthy man: A healthy bagger is happier than a king who has lost his health. It is said, “Health is wealth”. A healthy man can do and eat anything he likes. He can enjoy his life fully. As health is a source of all happiness.
 
How to a healthy: It is sure that “A sound mind lies in sound body”. So, if we can keep our body sound we can enjoy the fruits of health. In order to preserve our health we should obey the rules of health. In eating and drinking, we should be temperate. We should regularly sleep and rise early. We should take physical exercise regularly. We must be neat and clean our teeth wash our body and cloths, comb, our hair every day. A man who prays five times every day, he keeps himself neat and clean easily.
 
Warning: we know that “Excess of everything is very bad”. So we should not over eating and dirking. We should not take over exercise too.
 
Conclusion: Health is the key to all earthly pleasures and glories. Health is the main asset of life. We should always re member that health is wealth.
TECHNICAL EDUCATION
 
Introduction: Education resurrects our character. It helps us to become a real human being. But there is a gulf of differentiation between general and technical education. Training in practical art and science is called technical education. It means learning a particular art or science or craft by actual doing. No training is complete without scientific knowledge.
 
Technical education and prosperity: No nation can prosper without a large number of technically qualified men. Shortage of technical is hampering our industries. So, large scale technical education is necessary for greater production of our industries. Therefore, without technical education no nation can prosper lavishly.
 
Varity of technical education: There are various kinds of technical education like engineering, commercial, medical, agriculture, industrial; mining etc. the branches of technical education should be extended largely to assist the vagabond people. It provides employment to a good number of citizens.
 
Bangladesh and technical education: Bangladesh needs industrial revolution. But Bangladesh is not advance in it. She needs hundreds of technicians now and will need more in the near future. At present here technical man-power is supplied by foreign countries. But this state of things has to be stopped. Today or tomorrow industries are to be managed and run by our own people. Our government has paid attention to this matter.
 
Importance of technical education: The importance of technical education is very great. This education solves the problem of unemployment. Technically educated people can at least earn their even bread in honest and honourable way. Mainly, it develops our country. It makes the self-sufficient economically. It goes a long way in creating rapid industrialization.
 
Conclusion: If we give priority to the technical education we may have a bright future. The teaching of technical subject’s right form the secondary stage must be stressed and recognized. If we are technically developed, we will be prosperous as a nation.
UPAZILA ADMINISTRATION
 
Introduction: The aim of every government is to build up the foundation of development activities in the possible way. Upazilla administration is one of the steps of the present Bangladesh government like this.
 
Importance of Upazilla administration: For the well-being of the common people of our country and minimising the distance between the administration and general mass the Upazilla administration programme has been given to priority. In this programme, the public representatives of the locality will get change to take part in their administration and local development affairs. To this end in view all than as of Bangladesh have been upgraded and named them Upazillas.
 
Its constitution: The chairman of Upazilla is selected by the direct votes of people for five years. He is the head of Upazilla Parishad. The Upazilla Nirbahi Officer (UNO) is its secretary. All the heads of different offices of the Upazilla and all the chairman of the union councils are the members of the parishad.
 
Necessity: Bangladesh consists of 68 thousand villages. So, the development of Bangladesh is entirely dependent on the development of these villages. In the present system of administration the Upazilla is the centre of administration within its jurisdiction. So the local administration can get chance to determine its needs and to solve its problems. Every Upazilla has its own economic plane.
 
Demerits: There are some demerits also of the Upazilla. Various classes of officers are not able to run their activities with free. Because they are influenced by many local big guns. The number of people cannot get real judgment in many times.
 
Conclusion: The Upazilla administration bids fair to build up a developed and happy Bangladesh. So we should co-operate with the government in the way of our desirable aim of developing villages.
RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN BANGLADESH
 
Introduction: Bangladesh is a summation of 68thousands of villages. The development of Bangladesh depends on the prosperity of these villages. Rural electrification is a step which attempts in electrifying the rural areas of Bangladesh. Rural electrification is very difficult task.
 
Necessary of rural electrification: The towns and cities of Bangladesh are enjoying the benefit of electrification but the villages are deprived of that government has taken initiatives to electrify the rural areas. The necessity of rural electrification in the life of villagers is so great that it can’t be written in a normal way. The rural people through it get the touch of gift of modern science. The touching of electricity will reach the villagers in the zenith of modern civilization in their every step of life.
 
How to electrify the villages: Through different project or N.G.O.S may be electrified the villages. These organizations are trying their level best to implement this complication task by adopting rapid steps.
 
Government steps for rural electrification: Our government has taken classic initiatives in electrifying the rural areas of our country. Government has understood that without electrifying these dilapidated villages the development of the whole country won’t be possible.
 
Rural electrification and village development: Now in the modern age the real development of villages depends on electricity. If the villages get that the villagers can also set up mills and factories in the villages like towns and cities. They can enjoy television, radio, computer and many other enjoyable things. They will not need to go town often. So our neglected villages are being electrified, we have a prosperous Bangladesh sooner.
 
Conclusion: At the very end of essay it can be said that rural electrification programme will finish its function accordingly. If our whole Bangladesh is electrified, we will have a gallant civilization.
SAARC
 
Introduction: SAARC is an abbreviation of South Asian Regional Co-operation. It is a newly founded organization with the countries of South Asia. There are seven countries in South Asia. They are Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka.
 
Base of SAARC: It is assured that the necessity of SAARC was felt by late president Shaheed Ziaur Rahman when he found the oppression tendency among the highly powerful countries to the less powerful Afghanistan, Lebanon and Tibet. Only to protect the poor and less powerful countries from the oppression of highly powerful countries, they thought to united in an organization by which they could think and solve the distress and also any other national problems through that very organization. Till 7th December, 1985, it did not come to light for some unavoidable circumstances.
With the head to states of Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Maldives an organization was formed and was declared in Dhaka, Bangladesh on 7th December 1985 in presence of seven nation heads ‘SAARC’ by name, president of Bangladesh was in the chair. It was termed as Dhaka declaration.
 
Motto of SAARC: To serve one’s country best, the first thing is deep and sincere love for one’s country. ‘SAARC’ is promised to solve the national problems to each country taking help of all members. It will also face the national emergencies like floods, cyclones, fires etc. The members of SAARC are also agreed not to interfere in the sovereignty of others. They are also ready to help one another for the development of Education, Industry, Business, Communicative etc. and even security.
 
Conclusion: ‘SAARC’ is formed for the benefit of one hundred cores people. We cordially congratulate the ‘SAARC’. We hope it will never act against the interest of the people. We also hope, it will fulfil the hope for which it has been formed.
THE PEACE TREATY
 
Introduction: A historic Peace Treaty was signed between the Government of Bangladesh and the Janasanghati Samity of the Chittagong Hill Tracts on December 2, 1997. The Chief Whip of the government party in the par lament, Mr. Abdul Hasnat Abdullah signed it on behalf of the government with the president of  Janasanghati Samity Jyotirindra Bodhipriya Larma. At the occasion of the singing of the agreement, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina was present.
 
The nature of the treaty: The Peace Treaty has shown to the world that political problems can be solved through negotiations. The Treaty has ended the blood feud that has ravaged the hill Tracts for more than 18 years. It consists of four main guarantee clauses. Each cause contains a further series of sub-clauses. To realize the Treaty a three-member committee has been formed with a convener to be nominated by the Prime Minister.
 
The impact of the Treaty: All governments of the past had taken up attempt to find a solution to the Hill Tracts problems without much success. The late Hill Tracts leader, Manabendra Narayan Larma, demanded provincial autonomy in 1972. The government of that time refused that. In 1973, the armed cadre of the Janasanghati Samity named as ‘shanti Bahini’ was formed. Then much bloodshed occurred. People got killed indiscriminately.
 
The reality: The reality is that the people of hill districts want nothing but peace. They want to lead a normal peaceful life. Many of the tribal people who crossed the border out of fear have now started coming back after the singing of the Treaty. People who criticize the government do not, however, come forward with better alternatives.
 
Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the peace Treaty has been received positively by the world bodies. And, indecently tension has ceased up in the Hill Tracts since the signing of the agreement. Finally, we hope that the Peace Treaty survives in the coming days.
ILLITERACY
 
Introduction: Education is the backbone of a nation. No nation can prosper without it. But in our country illiteracy exists on a mass scale. As a result we cannot stand. We have a large population. Only about one-fourth of our people can read and write. The rest of our people are illiterate. It is very sad. If our people can attain the ability to read and write, the nation will see the light of hope.
 
Importance of literacy: Newspapers, periodicals, magazines etc., are full of information’s and instructions. Records of all kinds and accounts are maintained in books. Documents of all kinds are written. Secret information’s and news are sent through letters. Modern methods of cultivation and other necessary instructions have been written in books. Doctors prescribe medicine and give instructions in writing. Even the religious books including the holy Quran are written. The person who can’t read and write is deprived of all the facilities of education. He remains ignorant. Ignorance is equivalent to darkness. We cannot do anything important in darkness.
 
Where we are: We have clearly realized that illiteracy is a curse. We must get rid of the curse of illiteracy. There are lots of boys and girls of school going age in our country. Some go to school and many tend cows or help their parents in the field of agriculture. In this way majority of our children are going illiterate. If this is allowed to continue, our country will never get rid of curse of illiteracy. Now our primary education is free. It is a matter of great pleasure that our government have taken some steps to make primary education compulsory. Beside this, proper importance has been given on adult education. It is true that all the illiterate grown up people cannot be brought under the programme at time. It is also true that only a few grown up illiterate people of the project area have responded to call. The illiterate women do not come forward. It is due to their ignorance and poverty. The adult education programme will be crowned with success if our illiterate adults want to get rid of the curse.
 
Conclusion: Encouraging response should come from our illiterate people to remove illiteracy from Bangladesh. Some bright examples should be brought before them. The local leaders and competent authorities should motivate and encourage our people so that they come forward to make the programme a success.
GROW MORE FOOD
 
Introduction: Once Bangladesh was the store house of crops. But those happy days have gone away. Now it has become a challenge to our existence. The title of essay suggests that we do not grow enough food. Of our total people 80 percent live below the poverty line, which must be very shocking for nation.
 
Cause of growing less food:
  • Hostile Nature: Natural calamities like cyclones, storms, floods and drought are the destructive factors for our agriculture. Peasants remain completely dependent on the vagaries of nature.
  • Ancient land system: The ancient land system is one of the causes of growing fewer crops. As a result, the uses of modern appliances like the tractor which needs a larger land space to work on, becomes difficult.
  • Lack of agricultural knowledge: The farmers of our country are hard-working. But their knowledge of agriculture is not modern and scientific. They do not cultivate more than one crop on a piece of land every year. Neither do they alternate between crops and vegetables.
  • Small land: Bangladesh is a small country but her population is large. We cannot grow enough crops on the lands. Plantation of fruits and other foods is also severely limited in scope because of the shortage of land.
 
What to do: To ensure more production of food grains the    government must stream-line, the distribution of fertilizer and the collection of the peasants’ about the benefits of having more than one- crop in one field.
 
Steps to control nature: Protecting the arable land from the ravages of natural calamities is huge task, and not to be done by the government alone, or not in one day. The government should co-ordinate to combine the efforts of all other organizations in putting banks on the rivers, digging cannels and irrigating the fields. As all this will involve huge funds, the authorities concertize and equipment.
 
On the small scale: The slogan “Grow more food” gets its real meaning when housewives feel the urge to make a food-garden in the backyard of their house.
 
Conclusion: Bangladesh will not be a happy country unless they grow more food slogan is materialized.
TRAFFIC JAM
 
Introduction: Traffic jam is a big problem in modern cities. All important streets in a big city get filled up with all types of vehicles during the busy hours.
 
Its causes: Traffic jams occur due to lack of knowledge about the traffic rules of the drivers. The other major cause of traffic jams originates in the movement of rickshaws and carts on the main road. In the pictures about traffic jams printed in newspapers more rickshaws and carts are seen than motor vehicles. Over the years more vehicles have come out than there are roads for them move. Most of the roads in the older parts of major cities are narrow and the streets recently made prove to be not very wide either.
 
Other causes: The WASA, T&T, PDB, and gas systems organizations can be seen engaged in digging the roads throughout the year. Their activities create traffic jams all the year round. The footpath vendors are really the indirect culprits for causing the traffic jam. They erect stalls just on the footpath pushing the pedestrians out into the road that in their turn block the free passing of traffic. Political meetings and rallies frequently create traffic jams. It is strange to note that all major political parties do not hesitate to hold public meetings just on the streets. They receive much silent curse from the journey-hampered people. Though, recently, the government is trying to impose a law banning political meetings in the streets.
 
Conclusion: The steps that have to be taken for controlling the traffic are to educate the drivers about the traffic rules, get the road wider, make by-passes and remove the footpath shopkeepers. The traffic police also have to be posted at more places for effective controlling of traffic.
DRUG ADDICTION: A CURSE
 
Introduction: Some drugs have intoxicating effects. They give stimulation to take them again and again. In some special cases certain restricted drugs are used to cause sleep or relieve pain in a very limited and measured way. Higher or repeated does of the drugs excite a man beyond self-control. Now-a-days some derailed or frustrated people are addicted to these drugs. The addiction to these dangerous things has created many personal and national problems.
 
Main drugs: Heroin, cocaine and morphine are restricted drugs. Heroin is a very costly drug. It is very dangerous too. Wine, opium and hemp are forbidden intoxicants. All restrictions and prohibitions have failed to prevent many of our young persons from taking these dangerous things.
 
Causes of addiction: The causes of drug addiction are many. Frustration is said to be the main cause of addiction. Defeat in the struggle of life, unemployment problem, lack of love and affection in the family and accidental loss of property and money create frustration among our young people. This habit is formed through bad company. Easy availability of drugs is another cause.
 
Evil effect: A drug addicted person does many bad and unsocial works. The drugs harm the brain cells, stomach, liver and pancreas. The immediate effects of taking restricted drugs are severe headache, staggering stammering and clumsy movement. The drugs, in a slow but steady way, lead the addicts to sure immature death.
 
Solution to the problem: In order to solve this problem all kinds of intoxicating drugs should be under the direct control of the doctors. Parents and guardians should give special attention to the activities of their child. Effective programmes should be taken to solve the unemployment problem. Bad associations must be avoided. If all these steps are taken, the problem will be solved.
 
Conclusion: Drug addiction is a national problem. It is also a cause. Every citizen should be alert against the bad effects of drugs. Government, politicians, doctors, teachers, social workers, writers, journalist, artists all should come forward to fight out the curse.
TERRORISM
 
Introduction: Terrorism is an act of violence. It is done either as protest or as show of power. Whatever may be the motive, the acts of terrorism go against common humanity.
 
Forms of terrorism: There is state terrorism as well as international terrorism. PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) and IRA (Autonomy for Republic of Ireland) seek to terrorism in order to press their political demands. There may be state terrorism too, done by the police force, as Hitler’s police force. The Sarbahara Party in Bangladesh is a political terrorist group.
 
Terrorism in the campus: All the campuses in Bangladesh are mow rife with terrorist activities. Students from rival parties clash daily and kill one another. Brawn has taken over brain in the campus. The very image of education is desecrated.
 
The youths and terrorism: the youths are victims of terrorism. They do the killing as well as get killed. Their leader remains in the background safe.
 
The main cause: The main cause of terrorism is the undemocratic culture of politics. Most political parties both the ruling and the opposition parties are all engaged in a violent game of politics. The educational institutions are occupied by armed cadres and bodies fall by bullets everywhere.
 
The solutions: The economic conditions of the people should be improved. New jobs should be created so that young people do not have to do terrorism for money. The judiciary and the police should act neutrally in taking action against terrorism. In general, the political parties gas to hold the key to solve the problem.
 
Conclusion: Terrorism has mot an end. But it can be controlled. The youths are like clay. They should not be moulded in the wrong way by the guardians of the society. Now it is our main duty to save them.
THE INTERNATIONAL MOTHER LANGUAGE DAY
 
Introduction: We are very proud because the UNESCO gas declared the 21st February as the International Mother Language Day. It is such a prestige that we cannot find the right words to express our sense of jubilation.
 
How it happened: The 21st February, our Martyr’s Day, is unique in the history of the world in the sense that in no other country have lost lives and suffered for the preservation of the mother tongue. So judging the significance of the language movement, the UNESCO, has considered it a matter of pride to declare the 21st February as the International Mother Language Day.
 
The Impact in Bangladesh: The impact of this glorious decision is huge in Bangladesh. The political parties and the student community started celebrating the occasion in the streets as soon as the news came to them.
 
World Languages: There are about 4000 official languages in the world. Bangladesh is the mother tongue of about 22crores of people. English, French, Spanish, Chinese and Arabic are some of the most dominant languages in the world. But, in spite of this, Bengali has come to the top position because through it mow all other languages have assumed their true status.
 
Conclusion: On the International Mother Language Day our vow will be to improve our language so that world. The constructions of sentences and the spelling patterns should be modernized. We should develop multi-lateral schemes to make Bengali a language easy to learn by foreigners.
SCIENCE IN EVERYDAY LIFE
 
Introduction: We live in an age of science. Impossible has been made possible by it. It has been creating wonders after wonders. We depend on them very much in our everyday life. In fact, modern life cannot be thought of without science.
 
Electricity: The invention of electricity is a landmark in the history of scientific inventions. It has brought about a revolutionary change in all spheres of human life. It has given us modern life in true sense of the term.
 
Conquered distance: Science has conquered distance. It has given us Telegraph, Telephone, Teleprinter, Television, Fax, Telex, etc. we can now send messages to the other corner of the world within seconds.
 
Communication: Science has given us Train, Steamers, Motor cars, Airplanes, Rockets, Speed boats, launches, etc. we use them to move from one place to another very quickly.
 
Medical Science: In the field of medical science it is not lagging behind either. It has invented various life savings drugs. It has given us vaccines, X-ray, Ultra-Sonography and other latest methods for diagnosing and curing serious diseases. The anti-biotic is a wonderful invention of science.
 
Entertainments: Science has given us various means for our entertainment. It has given us the radio, Television, Cinema, Tape-record, VCR, etc. for this purpose. In fact, these things constitute an essential part of our daily life.
 
Agriculture: Science has also made great break-through in the field of agriculture. It has replaced our traditional agricultural works by giving us tractor, power-pumps, deep tube-wells, fertilizers, high yielding varieties of crops.
 
Printing: Science has invented paper. It has invented printing press, type-writer, cyclostyling machines for helping rapid spread of education.
 
Recent inventions: The nuclear power, supersonic planes, space-ships, etc. are some of the recent inventions of science. The computer is anther wonderful gift of modern science. It is now being used widely in all spheres of life.
 
Conclusion: Modern science is an Aladdin’s lamp. Impossible is being made possible with the help of science. It has given us great power over nature. It has given us many opportunities. But it is a matter of great sorrow that many of the wonderful inventions of science are now increasingly being used for bad purposes.
MASS EDUCATION
 
Introduction: Education is compared to light. It dispels the curse of ignorance. It brings out all round development of the body and mind. Everyone has a right of education. It is his fundamental right.
 
Mass education: Giving education to the illiterate mass is called mass education. No nation can prosper by keeping her vast majority in the abyss of ignorance. Mass education makes people conscious of their right and duties. It helps them to become good citizens. It makes them patriots. During the British and Pakistani rule no steps were taken in this direction. Now we are a free country. It is now time for us to education our illiterate masses for the overall development of the country. It will be a curse for us if we keep our 80% people in the dark.
 
Government’s effort: Our government is aware of this national problem. It is making sincere efforts to solve this problem. It has made Primary Education compulsory for children. The Radio and the Television are also making programmes every day for this purpose.
Our duties: We should help the government in making the mass literacy programme a success; Night school should be opened in every village on government and private initiative Unemployed educated youths may be engaged for this on giving them a subsistence allowance. The poor students of the night schools should be given reading and writing materials free of cost. They may be given some extra facilities to ensure regular attendance.
 
Local teachers and students can be used: The government can use the teachers of the local schools. College and madrasah to organize this campaign. Imams of the mosques and the students after their final examinations can be engaged for this. We must remember that this is gigantic task Co-operation from all quarters is essential to make it a success.
 
Conclusion: Our government has given top priority to education. It has allocated a huge amount for education in the national budget. It has also given a greater stress on mass literacy programmes and on compulsory education. We are hopeful that if bold step is taken and the co-operation of all is got from all quarters the curse of illiteracy will in no time be eradicated from Bangladesh.
NEWSPAPER READING
 
Introduction: Newspaper in the most essential thing in modern life. It carries news and other items of entertainment for us. It is the source of knowledge too. It gives us news of what is happening around the world.
 
Its importance: The importance of newspaper in modern life can hardly be exaggerated. It is the mirror of social life. It is the It is the cheapest medium of acquiring the latest knowledge of the current affairs. It is the newspaper which comes to our door carrying many aspects of life of home and abroad. One cannot think of a day without a newspaper.
 
Importance to the politicians: To a politician a newspaper is a must. He does not feel easy if he cannot go through his favourite newspaper. It carries for him information about the political matters of his country and the world at large. So a newspaper is a part and parcel of his daily life.
 
Importance to businessman: A businessman reads newspaper for his commercial purpose. This supplies him information about the price of various items of commodities at home and abroad. It also tells him about the banking activities.
 
Importance to a sports man: A newspaper also carries the news of sport. So it is a great attraction to a sports man.
 
It covers wide variety of items: By reading newspapers we get the news about cultural matters and the least development of science and the socio-economic condition of many countries. It’s publishes weather forecasts market condition television and radio programmes and many things of entertainment and information.
 
It advises the government: A newspaper advises the government in its various functions policies. It makes the governments means of solving them.
 
Its importance to students: Mere knowledge of books is not enough. A newspaper supplements the bookish knowledge. It development taking place everywhere in the world in all matters. It is the greatest store house of knowledge.
 
Conclusion: A newspaper is one of the greatest contributions of modern civilization. But we must guard against the Newspaper which deals particularly with party politics and spread rumours. It ventilates public opinion. So it can play a vital role in nation building activities and help grow healthy social relations.
YOUR FIRST DAY AT SCHOOL
 
Introduction: Human life is full of incidents and experiences. Among these, some of the incidents take place in the core of heart and pre-recollect at the moment of tranquillity and it makes us nostalgic. My first day at school in included in this class and it makes me passionate even today. This is the day which has made the base of my student life.
 
The day of thrill and sensation: I was a child of six years. This is why I cannot remember the exact date but the memories. One day my father informed me that I would be admitted into a primary school which is at a stone throw from our house. I had a mixed reaction of thrill and fear. I was taught the ABC in home by my mother about my wariness and she encouraged me. At last the day came and my father took me to the school.
 
Memories of the first day: Passing the gate I entered into the school campus. I caught hold of my father's hand. My face looked pale and I was also sweating even in the cold winter morning. I was taken to the Headmaster's room and his affectionate conduct relived my anxieties. He asked me about my identity and the ABC of knowledge. Then he told one of the teachers to take me to the class-room. I got a seat on the second bench. All the faces were unknown to me and I eagerly waited for the first class. Her behaviour was so motherly that I forgot all wariness. One of the students, sitting beside me, talked with me. In a few minutes we became friends.
 
The leisure and end of the day: After two periods the leisure period came and many of the students started playing different type of games. But I did not play and passed the leisure with the new friend in gossiping. After two more classes the school broke of that day and I returned home with my father.
 
Conclusion: My first day at school is an unforgettable day in life. This day in ever fresh in my memory. This is the starting day of my student life.
FAMILY PLANNING
 
Introduction: The world stands with a limited area. Everything on the surface of the earth should be done in a planned way. So a family should also be planned. To plan a family means to have a desired number of children on the family.
 
Why this planning: The population of our country is growing rapidly at the rate of 2.16 percent every year. If the population additional things, But our resources are limited. As a result they will suffer and create problems. A small family is a happy family - say the wise. It can give its members proper food, clothing, shelter, education and medical treatment. But it is clothing, shelter, education and medical treatment. But it is not possible on the part of a big family to do all these things. So every family must be planned.
 
Family planning in Bangladesh: Though Bangladesh has one of the effective networks of family planning. People in the lower class and in the village are painfully unaware about the benefits. The birth control items which are distributed to them free remain unused.
 
Failure of family planning: The attitude of the general public towards the problem of over-population is casual. They do not see the logic that more children mean less food. Lack of education is the greatest cause behind the failure of family planning in our country. Many women in the lower class become mothers almost every year so, they are not allowed to have time for education. Whereas the advancement of women is integrally related to the reducing of birth rate.
 
Government's duty: The ultimate responsibility lies with the government. It has to that people received adequate education about family planning, and it also to guarantee that children born are provided well and given food and the largely unemployed graduates.
 
How to plan a family: All the adult members of our families should follow the suggestions given by the family planning authorities. Beside this the government should provide more facilities of all kinds within the reach of the people of all levels.
 
Conclusion: In conclusion I can say we must plan our families if we want to make our families happy and our hunger, illiteracy misery etc.
PLANTING TREES / TREE PLANTATION
 
Introduction: Tree plays a vital role of keeping balance in the natural ecosystem. It decorates the nature with scenic beauty. It gives us fruit, shade and shelter. We cannot imagine a place without tree.
 
Importance: Tree inhales carbon-dioxide and exhales oxygen. We exhale carbon-dioxide and inhale oxygen. So trees act in keeping the proportions of gases in air in a balanced condition. Trees emit vapours and thus keep the atmosphere moist. Huge number of tree at a place plays a vital role in keeping the rain fall frequent, the green colour of the leaves is also comfortable for our eyes. So from the view point of environment, trees are very important to us
 
Carelessness about trees: In the past, tree were plenty of tree and forests, But with the growth of population, these trees were chopped and very few people cared to plant new trees, So our country is now at a deficit in necessary timber. Our people must be convinced of the need for planting trees. Every year "Planting week" is held and a few trees are planted in towns. This is not sufficient for the need of timber for millions.
 
Proper Time for planting: June and July are the proper time for planting trees. Planting week must not be observed in towns only. In village tree will be planted by every family. Trees will be planted on the banks of ponds on both sides of highways, on the banks of dams, by the side of frail lines. More planting trees will not do only. They are to be taken care of by giving fences, pulling out weeds, using fertilizer and by watering them when necessary.
 
Usefulness: People must realize that trees provide them with vitamins by supplying fruits. In the village we see very few mango tree, coconut tree, black berry tree, guava tree etc. furniture and fuel. They sake their houses from cyclone and give shade from the scorching heat of the sun.
 
Conclusion: Tree will solve food problem to some extent. This will reduce the pressure on rice, Seasonal fruits from trees will provide people with vitamins and help people to get health. If each and every member of the community understands the protecting of trees and takes active measures for planting and protecting them, we can hope that our country will be self-sufficient in wood.
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